One of the features seen in spermatozoa with abnormal sperm morphology is the retention of cytoplasmic droplets, which are extruded during spermiogenesis.

High levels of morphologically abnormal sperm, teratozoospermia, showing cytoplasmic droplets lead to excessive ROS generation [111]. Therefore, these patients are more prone to develop seminal OS. Sperm ROS production negatively correlates with the percentage of normal morphology. This relationship allows for the identification of cases with high seminal ROS based on the assessment of sperm morphology [112],

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