Unexplained Infertility

Unexplained infertility is diagnosed whenever routine testing methods including semen analysis fail to identify a reason for delay in achieving pregnancy. Other testing methods such as assessment of ROS and DNA fragmentation may reveal the actual cause of infertility in these cases [82]. Higher seminal ROS levels and lower antioxidant levels were shown in men diagnosed with unexplained infertility compared to healthy controls [83 ] . Moreover, abnormal levels of ROS were seen in 25-40% of men diagnosed with unexplained infertility [84].

Assessment of the sperm DNA fragmentation analysis can also provide the exact etiology in cases with unexplained infertility especially in the presence of normal semen parameters [85]. Since OS is one of the causes of increased sperm DNA damage, both conditions may play a conjoint potentiating role resulting in male infertility. Also, apoptosis markers such as cytochrome c, mitochondrial membrane potential, and caspases 3, 9 have been shown in association with OS-induced sperm damage which may point to the implication of apoptosis in unexplained infertility as seen in cases with normal semen parameters [49] .

Apoptosis has been approved to play a major role in male infertility [32]; however, the exact mechanisms of its involvement need to be explained. Relatively high levels of apoptosis have been reported in testicular biopsies from infertile men with different degrees of testicular insufficiency [31]. The percentage of apoptotic sperm is reported to be higher in ejaculated semen samples from infertile men compared to healthy men [32]. Although apoptosis is considered a mechanism to ensure selection of sperm cells with undamaged DNA, sperm with DNA damage that are not eliminated by apoptosis may fertilize an ovum [86]. Poor chromatin packaging and/ or damaged DNA have been implicated in the failure of sperm decondensation after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), resulting in fertilization failure [87].

Pregnancy Guide

Pregnancy Guide

A Beginner's Guide to Healthy Pregnancy. If you suspect, or know, that you are pregnant, we ho pe you have already visited your doctor. Presuming that you have confirmed your suspicions and that this is your first child, or that you wish to take better care of yourself d uring pregnancy than you did during your other pregnancies; you have come to the right place.

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