The Atlas of Heart Disease and Stroke

Mensah Dr Shanthi Mendis and Dr Kurt Greenlund The Atlas of Heart Disease and Stroke World Health Organization 2004 First published 2004 1 3 5 7 9 10 8 6 4 2 WHO Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data Mackay, Judith. The atlas of heart disease and stroke Judith Mackay and George Mensah with Shanthi Mendis and Kurt Greenlund. l.Heart diseases epidemiology 2.Cerebrovascular accident epidemiology 3.Risk factors 4.Atlases I.Mensah, George. II.Mendis, Shanthi....

Types of cardiovascular disease

Deaths from cardiovascular diseases (CVD) Number of deaths globally per year from different types of CVD, by age other cardiovascular diseases hypertensive heart disease inflammatory heart disease rheumatic heart disease 0-4 years 5-14 15-29 30-44 45-59 60-69 70-79 80+ years 0-4 years 5-14 15-29 30-44 45-59 60-69 70-79 80+ years Disease of the blood vessels supplying the heart muscle. Major risk factors High blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, tobacco use, unhealthy diet, physical...

Rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease

Rheumatic fever usually follows an untreated beta-haemolytic streptococcal throat infection in children. It can affect many parts of the body, and may result in rheumatic heart disease, in which the heart valves are permanently damaged, and which may progress to heart failure, atrial fibrillation, and embolic stroke. Nowadays, rheumatic fever mostly affects children in developing countries, especially where poverty is widespread. Up to 1 of all schoolchildren in Africa, Asia, the Eastern...

Global burden of coronary heart disease

Map Healthy years of life lost to coronary heart disease Mortality and burden of disease estimates for countries provided by Colin Mathers (Evidence and Information for Policy, WHO) from analyses prepared for The World Health Report 2003. WHO. The World Health Report 2003 Shaping the future. Geneva, WHO, 2003. Ounpuu S, Anand S, Yusuf S. The global burden of cardiovascular disease. Medscape cardiology, 24 January 2002 Nayha S. Cold and the risk of cardiovascular diseases. A review....

Deaths from coronary heart disease

Map Deaths from coronary heart disease Mortality and burden of disease estimates for countries provided by Colin Mathers (Evidence and Information for Policy, WHO) from analyses prepared for The World Health Report 2003. Deaths from coronary heart disease compared with other causes WHO. The World Health Report 2003 Shaping the future. Geneva, WHO, 2003, Table 1.3 17. British Heart Foundation Statistics database. 1. Mortality. Table 1.5 http www.heartstats.org WHO. The World Health Report 2003...

Prevention personal choices and actions

No matter how far you have gone on the wrong road, turn back. Good control of blood pressure, blood cholesterol and blood sugar levels, and other cardiovascular risk factors is the key to reducing risks of heart disease and stroke. Personal behaviour and lifestyle choices can make a big difference to the risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. It is estimated that having a high-risk lifestyle may account for 82 of coronary events in women. Here, we identify personal choices that can lower...

Policies and legislation

The welfare of the people is the ultimate law. Salus Populi Suprema Est Lex. Cicero (106 BCE-43 BCE) Laws, treaties, policies and regulations have played important roles in the prevention and control of disease. Only governments can legislate for health warnings on cigarettes, introduce mandatory food standards and labelling, crack down on smuggling, set a pro-health tax policy, or implement national transport policy. Often governments are the main providers of health care they decide how...

Risk factor blood pressure

WHO Global NCD InfoBase online database . Geneva, WHO, 2004 Trends, USA, 1960-2000 Health, United States 2002 Table 68. Hypertension among persons 20 years of age and over, according to sex, age, race, and Hispanic origin United States, 1960-62,1971-74, 1976-80, 1988-94, and 1999-2000. Referencing Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1982-84), and...

Risk factor tobacco

WHO Global NCD InfoBase online database . Geneva, WHO Cardiovascular risks of smoking Price JF, Mowbray PI, Lee AJ, Rumley A, Lowe GD, Fowkes FG. Smoking and cardiovascular risk factors in the development of cardiovascular disease and coronary artery disease Edinburgh Artery Study. European heart journal, 1999, 20 344-353. Prescott E, Hippe M, Schnohr P, Hein HO, Vestbo J. Smoking and risk of myocardial infarction in women and men longitudinal population study. British medical journal, 1998,...

Risk factor obesity

WHO Global NCD InfoBase online database . Geneva, WHO Food consumption Diet, nutrition and the prevention of chronic diseases report of a Joint WHO FAO Expert Consultation. Geneva, WHO, 2003 (WHO Technical Report Series No. 916) Table 1 15. Data from Popkin BM. The shift in stages of the nutritional transition in the developing world differs from past experiences Public health nutrition, 2002, 5 205-214. Apple shape at higher risk of CVD than pear shape Lakka HM, Lakka TA, Tuomilehto J, Salonen...

Risk factor socioeconomic status

Prevalence of CVD risk factors by education in Canada Choiniere R, Lafontaine P, Edwards AC. Distribution of cardiovascular disease risk factors by socioeconomic status among Canadian adults. Canadian Medical Association journal, 2000, 162(9 Suppl) S13-24. Note Definitions used Physical inactivity leisure exercise less than once per week during previous month. Elevated cholesterol > 5.2 mmol l after fasting 8 hours or more. Singh GK, Siahpush M. Increasing inequalities in all-cause and...

Women a special case

Prescott E, Hippe M, Schnohr P, Hein HO, Vestbo J. Smoking and risk of myocardial infarction in women and men longitudinal population study. British medical journal, 1998, 316 1043-1047. Clark J. News roundup Women too busy to exercise. British medical journal, 2003, 326 467. Walking reduces coronary heart disease Lee IM, Rexrode KM, Cook NR, Manson JE, Buring JE. Physical activity and coronary heart disease in women. Is no pain, no gain pass Journal of the American Medical Association, 2001,...

Prevention population and systems approaches

Noncommunicable disease prevention and control Availability of equipment Medical professionals Antihypertensive drugs Alwan A, Maclean D, Mandil A. Assessment of national capacity for noncommunicable disease prevention and control the report of a global survey. Geneva, WHO, 2001. Use of medications in stroke and coronary heart disease Gaps in secondary prevention of myocardial infarction and stroke WHO study on Prevention of REcurrences of Myocardial Infarction and StrokE (WHO-PREMISE) in low...

Risk factor lipids

Carte Mondiale Site Arcelormittal

High levels of LDL-cholesterol, and other abnormal Lipids (fats), are risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Cholesterol is a soft, waxy substance found among the lipids in the bloodstream and in all the body's cells. It is needed to form cell membranes and hormones, and for other bodily functions. The body can make cholesterol, or it can obtain it from food, especially animal products such as meats, poultry, fish, eggs, and dairy products. Certain saturated vegetable fats and oils, including...

Risk factor diabetes

The urine of diabetics is wonderfully sweet as if imbued with honey or sugar. Thomas Willis (1621-1675), physician to King Charles II, England Diabetes is a risk factor for coronary heart disease and stroke, and is the most common cause of amputation that is not the result of an accident. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas and used by the body to regulate glucose (sugar). Diabetes occurs when the body does not produce enough insulin, or cannot use it properly, leading to too much...

Contents

By Dr LEE Jong-Wook, Director-General, World Health Organization 9 Types of cardiovascular disease 18 Different types of cardiovascular diseases. Global deaths from cardiovascular diseases. Rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease 20 Deaths from rheumatic heart disease. Cases of rheumatic heart disease in children. Deaths among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations in Australia. Overview of modifiable, non-modifiable and novel risk factors. Percentage contribution of leading risk factors...

Acknowledgements

Special thanks go to the following WHO staff for their support for this project Catherine Le Gales-Camus, Assistant Director-General, Noncommunicable Diseases and Mental Health Robert Beaglehole, Director, Department of Chronic Diseases and Health Promotion Rafael Bengoa, Director, Health Systems Policy and Operations and Derek Yach, Representative of the Director-General. Particular thanks go to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), United States of America, for their generous...