Risk factor socioeconomic status

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Prevalence of CVD risk factors by education in Canada

Choiniere R, Lafontaine P, Edwards AC. Distribution of cardiovascular disease risk factors by socioeconomic status among Canadian adults. Canadian Medical Association journal, 2000, 162(9 Suppl):S13-24. Note: Definitions used: Physical inactivity: leisure exercise less than once per week during previous month. Elevated cholesterol: >5.2 mmol/l after fasting 8 hours or more.

The CVD mortality gap in the USA

Singh GK, Siahpush M. Increasing inequalities in all-cause and cardiovascular mortality among US adults aged 25-64 years by area and socioeconomic status,

1969-1998. International journal of epidemiology,

Prevalence of high blood pressure by income in Trinidad and Tobago

Gulliford MC, Mahabir D, Rocke B. Socioeconomic inequality in blood pressure and its determinants: cross-sectional data from Trinidad and Tobago. Journal of human hypertension, 2004, 18:61-70.

Education level and obesity in Italy

Giampaoli S, Palmieri L, Dima F, Pilotto L, Vescio MF, Vanuzzo D. Socioeconomic aspects and cardiovascular risk factors: experience at the Cardiovascular Epidemiologic Observatory. Italian heart journal, 2001, 2(3 Suppl):294-302.

Smoking and occupation in Uganda

Uganda Demographic and Health Survey 2000-2001.

Smoking by years of education in South Africa

South Africa Demographic and Health Survey (SADHS) 1998.

Income and obesity in Saudi Arabia

Al-Nuaim AA et al. Overweight and obesity in Saudi Arabian adult population, role of socio-demographic variables. Journal of community health, 1997, 22(3):211-23.

Prevalence of diabetes by income in India

Ramachandran A, Snehalatha C, Kapur A et al. Diabetes Epidemiology Study Group in India (DESI). High prevalence of diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance in India: National Urban Diabetes Survey. Diabetologia, 2001, 44(9):1094-101.

Wow: Canada

Evenson B. When rich and poor kids eat the same diet, poor ones get fatter. ProCOR, 12 September



Steptoe A, Feldman PJ, Kunz S, Owen N, Willemsen G, Marmot M. Stress responsivity and socioeconomic status: a mechanism for increased cardiovascular disease risk? European heart journal, 2002, 23(22):1757-63.


Terris M. The development and prevention of cardiovascular disease risk factors: socioenvironmental influences. Preventive medicine, 1999, 29(6 Pt 2):S11-17.

Pickering T. Cardiovascular pathways: socioeconomic status and stress effects on hypertension and cardiovascular function. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1999, 896:262-277.

Rao SV, Kaul P, Newby K et al. Poverty, process of care, and outcome in acute coronary syndrome. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 2003, 41:1948-54.

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