Theoretical Methods

With 147 Figures



Dr. Adolfo Avella

Professor Dr. Ferdinando Mancini

Universita degli Studi di Salerno, Dipartimento di Fisica "E.R. Caianiello" Via Ponte don Melillo, 84084 Fisciano (SA), Italy E-mail: [email protected], [email protected]

Series Editors:

Professor Dr., Dres. h. c. Manuel Cardona Professor Dr., Dres. h. c. Peter Fulde* Professor Dr., Dres. h. c. Klaus von Klitzing Professor Dr., Dres. h. c. Hans-Joachim Queisser

Max-Planck-Institut fur Festkörperforschung, Heisenbergstrasse 1,70569 Stuttgart, Germany * Max-Planck-Institut für Physik komplexer Systeme, Nothnitzer Strasse 38 01187 Dresden, Germany

Professor Dr. Roberto Merlin Department of Physics, University of Michigan 450 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1040, USA

Professor Dr. Horst Stormer

Dept. Phys. and Dept. Appl. Physics, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 and Bell Labs., Lucent Technologies, Murray Hill, NJ 07974, USA

Springer Series in Solid-State Sciences ISSN 0171-1873

ISBN 978-3-642-21830-9 e-ISBN 978-3-642-21831-6

DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-21831-6

Springer Heidelberg Dordrecht London New York

Library of Congress Control Number: 2011940501

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

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To Maria Marinaro, who introduced us to the wonderful field of many-body physics

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