Hou, P. C. 1965. The relationship between primary carcinoma of the liver and infestation with Clonorchis sinensis. Journal of Pathological Bacteriology 72: 239-46.

Kean, B. H., Kenneth E. Mott, and Adair J. Russell, eds. 1978. Tropical medicine and parasitology: Classic investigations, Vol. II, 546-60. Ithaca and London. Kim, D. C., and R. E. Kuntz. 1964. Epidemiology of helminth diseases: Clonorchis sinensis (Cobbold, 1875; Looss, 1907 on Taiwan, Formosa). Chinese Medical Journal 11: 29-47. Komiya, Y. 1966. Clonorchis and clonorchiasis. In Advances in parasitology, ed. B. Dawes, 53—106. New York.

The term croup is used in an inclusive way to identify several different respiratory illnesses of children manifested by varying degrees of inspiratory stridor, cough, and hoarseness due to upper-airway obstruction. Classically croup was a manifestation of diphtheria. In the twentieth century, many other infectious causes of croup syndromes are recognized, and in addition, similar illnesses can be caused by noninfectious processes.

A classification of crouplike illnesses is presented in Table VIII.30.1. Although long-term obstruction in the glottic and subglottic regions can lead to chronic illnesses, croup syndromes are described here as acute self-limited or fatal illnesses. Most cases of croup today are either laryngotracheitis or spasmodic croup.

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