Etiology and Epidemiology

Typhomalarial fever was generally regarded as a noncontagious, infectious disease that resulted from exposure to the atmospheric or environmental infections or toxins that caused malarial fevers and typhoid fevers. Most commonly, patients were previously debilitated, or their vital powers were depressed in some way. In Woodward's classic formulation, this was the result of the depression produced by army camp life and malnutrition — particularly incipient scurvy. The disease required an area of endemic malarial fever, frequently a marsh, into which the animal causes of typhoid fever — crowding and improper sanitation - intruded. The debilitated individual in such an environment was almost sure to contract typhomalarial fever.

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