Eye Ear Nose and Throat Diseases

Many forms of deafness and their supposed causes are discussed in the Tongui pogam. The condition referred to as earache accompanied by "purulent ear" was probably otitis media. A section on major and minor nose disease includes symptoms suggest ing rhinorrhea, hypertrophic rhinitis, and maxillary sinusitis. There are also many diseases discussed that were associated with inflammation of the throat and mouth. Symptoms in the Tongui pogam are consistent with tonsillitis, diphtheria, uvulitis, tongue cancer, ranula (sublingual cyst), and various forms of tooth disease.

Because of their debilitating effect and their direct influence on daily life activities, eye diseases were readily observed and described. Although eye disorders caused by problems within the body or peculiar diseases inside the eyeballs were hard to detect, conditions affecting the surface were described in detail. The Tongui pogam described eye diseases, including pterygium and trachoma, in terms of more than 20 symptoms. Liver diseases were thought to cause problems behind the eyeball, which led to incurable loss of vision.

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