History

Diarrheal diseases have been important to all societies since the beginning of recorded history. Hippocrates used the term "dysentery" to denote a condition wherein the affected person, experiencing straining and painful defecation, passed many stools containing blood and mucus. Through the First World War, outbreaks of diarrhea and dysentery were as important to deciding the outcome of many military campaigns as were war-related injuries.

The modern era of diarrheal diseases began, as was the case with other infectious disorders, with the identification of the causative agents involved. During the mid-1800s, Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica were first identified. Then during the latter part of the nineteenth century, Shigella and Salmonella organisms were characterized, and the two forms of dysentery - bacillary and amebic -were distinguished.

During the 1960s, a series of landmark studies helped to elucidate the mechanisms of disease production when cholera toxin was purified. As an extension of research with V. cholerae during the 1970s, enterotoxigenic E. coli were identified as important causes of diarrhea. Soon thereafter, other entero-toxin- or cytotoxin-producing bacteria were discovered: Salmonella, Aeromonas, Yersinia, Clostridium perfrigens, C. difficile, enterohemorrhagic E. coli, noncholera vibrios, and Staphylococcus aureus.

Also during the early 1970s, viruses were clearly implicated as causes of diarrhea in humans. Initially, Norwalk virus was shown to produce gastroenteritis in volunteers fed bacteria-free stool filtrates derived from an elementary school outbreak in Norwalk, Ohio, and the 27-millimeter viral particle was visualized by electron microscopy. Soon thereafter, larger viral particles were observed in the duodenal mucosa of infants with diarrhea, and within a few years rotaviruses were established as a major cause of infantile gastroenteritis. Additional pathogens are being identified in cases of diarrheal disease as the research laboratory discovers novel mechanisms of pathogenesis or as new microbiological techniques for isolation and identification are developed. The future will bring studies of organism-specific epidemiology, therapy, and disease prevention.

Constipation Prescription

Constipation Prescription

Did you ever think feeling angry and irritable could be a symptom of constipation? A horrible fullness and pressing sharp pains against the bladders can’t help but affect your mood. Sometimes you just want everyone to leave you alone and sleep to escape the pain. It is virtually impossible to be constipated and keep a sunny disposition. Follow the steps in this guide to alleviate constipation and lead a happier healthy life.

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