Name Index

Abd al-Aziz idn Marwan, 338 Abd al-Latif al-Baghdadi, 29 Abercrombie, John, 585, 805

Abreu, Aleixo de (1568-1630): Abreu, a Portuguese physician, studied medicine at the University of Coimbra before visiting both Angola and Brazil. His only book, Tratado de las siete enfermedades, was the first text on tropical medicine and the first to give full and accurate descriptions of yellow fever, amebic hepatitis, dracunculiasis, trichuriasis, and tungiasis. 540, 1058 Abu al-Biruni, 13

Abu-Ali al-Husayn ibn-Sina, see Avicenna

Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariya al Razi, see Rhazes

Abul-Qasim, see Albucasis

Ackerknecht, Erwin H., 409

Acton, William, 88

Ada, Gordon, 134

Adams, Joseph, 117,118,124

Adams, Robert, 92

Addison, Thomas (1793-1860): Addison of Guy's Hospital in London made numerous contributions to medicine. Among these were the first book in English on the actions of poisons in the body and a classical description of pernicious anemia later known as Addison's disease. 572, 1078 Aesculapius (Asclepius): A legendary physician who became a Greek god during the fifth century B.C. His holy snake and staff still remain symbols of the medical profession. 688, 925 Aetius of Amida (c. 502-75): Aetius, a Mesopotamian, served as physician to Emperor Justinian of Byzantium. He wrote a substantial medical encyclopedia entitled Tetrabiblion. This work contained information on ophthalmology, internal medicine, obstetrics, and surgery. It also included the collected works of others such as Rufus of Ephesus and Soranus. 12, 265, 266, 655, 901, 929 Africanus, Leo, 339 Afzelius, Arvid, 854 Aggarwal, S. K., 473 Aggeler, P. N., 622 Agramont, Jacme d', 197 Ahmad, sultan, 415 Akbar, Mongol emperor, 415

al-Antaki, see Dawud ibn Umar al-Antaki Albert, Jose, 610

Albertini, Ippolito Francesco, 693, 694, 695 Albright, Fuller, 910

Albucasis (Abul-Qasim) (c. 936-1013): Albucasis was the author of the Altasrif. This was an important work on surgery and medicine and is believed to contain the first description of hemophilia. 29, 727, 1089 al-Bukhari, 337 Alexander of Aphrodisias, 268 Alexander the Great, 11, 273, 507, 508, 739 Alexander of Tralles (Alexander Trallianus) (525-605): Alexander, a Greek physician, was essentially a compiler of the works of others, although his description of helminthic infection lays the basis for the claim that he was the first parasitologist. 12, 267, 740, 901 Alhazen (Ibn al-Haytham), 28

Alibert, Jean Louis Marc (1763-1837): Alibert, a French physician at the St. Louis Hospital in Paris, is considered the founder of the field of dermitology. He was the first to selectively designate a number of conditions such as "Alibert's Keloid" to which his name has been attached. 750, 776,1093 Ali ibn al-Abbas al-Majusi, see Haly Abbas Ali ibn Isa, 901

Ali ibn Sahl Rabban al-Tabari, 29, 413 al-Jahiz, 337

Allauddin II, king of Persia, 43 Allbutt, Clifford, 640 Allchin, W. H., 804 Allen, Horace N., 400 Allison, A. C., 575, 1008 Allison, M., 311 Almagro, Diego de, 537 Almeida, Luis de, 382 Alpert, S., 805

Alpin, Prosper (Prospero Albini), 338, 339

al-Razi, see Rhazes al-Walid I, caliph, 338 Alzheimer, Alois, 12, 561 Ammonios, 1090 Amos, H. L., 777 Andersen, Dorothy H., 658 Anderson, E., 309

Anderson, John F. (1873-1958): An American physician, Anderson, along with Joseph Goldberger, transmitted measles to monkeys and demonstrated cross-immunity in monkeys between so-called Brill's disease and typhus. 874, 1081 Andral, Gabriel, 652 André, Jean-Marie, 264 Andrews, Alfred C., 723 Andrews, Sir Christopher Howard, 810 Andrews, John B., 188, 189 Andromeda, 115 Anell, Bengt, 931

Angel, J. L., 249, 250, 256, 257, 309 Anglicus, Bartolemeus, 601 Anne, queen of England, 998 Annesley, James, 570, 644, 646 Anson, George, 1002 Anthony of Egypt, St., 719

Anthony the Great, St. (also the hermit), 272, 989, 990

Anthony of Padua, St., 989

Appelbloom, T., 601

Aquinas, St. Thomas, 513, 514

Arad-Nana, 925

Aretaeus the Cappadocian (Aretaeus of Cappadocia) (81-138): Aretaeus, a Greek physician, is perhaps best known for a text (whose original title has not survived) on the causes, symptoms, and treatment of acute and chronic diseases. He also gave the first description of the aura of epilepsy. 264, 265, 266, 642, 652,656, 726, 803, 940, 1044 Aristides, 265 Aristophanes, 263

Aristotle, 29, 115, 116, 266, 583, 618, 739, 927, 929, 1048

Armelagos, George, 257, 310, 1054

Armstrong, C., 595

Arnold of Villanova, 964

ar-Razi, see Rhazes

Arrhenius, Savante August, 129

Arriaga, Eduardo, 209, 329

Artenstein, Malcolm S., 988

Artzney, Zene, 926

Aschoff, Ludwig, 970

Asclepius, 11

Aselli, Gasparro, 102

Ashford, Bailey K., 787

Ashley, Lord, 202

Astruc, Jean (1684—1766): Astruc served as physician to the king of France, and authored many volumes on medicine as well as works on theology, literature, history, and geography. His best-known work, De Morbis Venereis (1736), dealt with venereology and provided the first description of herpes genitalis and stated that syphilis first appeared in Europe in 1493. 776, 1030 Auenbrugger (Auenbrugg), Joseph Leopold Edler von (1722-1809): An Austrian physician, Auenbrugger is considered the founder of the diagnostic technique of chest percussion, in which the tones created by tapping the chest reveal various conditions. 91, 694, 940 Aufderheide, Arthur, 501, 825 Augustine, St., 510 Augustus, Caesar, 823, 929, 1075 Aurelianus, see Caelius Aurelianus

Aurelius, Marcus, 193, 265, 509 Auricchio, S., 813 Averroes (Ibn Rushd), 29, 30 Avery, Oswald, 941

Avicenna (Abu-Ali al-Husayn ibn-Sina) (980-1037): Avicenna, a Persian physician and philosopher, was the author of numerous medical books (over 100), which remained standard until the seventeenth century. His Canon was a particularly famous medical text. In his works, he compiled all the theoretical and practical medical knowledge of that time, which embodied all that was Galenism. 13, 29, 30, 282, 413, 688, 692, 727, 747, 837, 873, 928, 929, 964, 1090 Avison, Oliver R., 400-1, 402, 403, 404, 406

Bach, G., 1037 1039 Bacon, Frances, 61

Baglivi, Giorgio (Georgius Baglivi) (1668-1707): Born in Dubrovnik, Baglivi spent his life in Italy, where he became a professor of anatomy in Rome. In 1696, he published Praxis medica, which made proposals for the future of medicine, including support for the Hippo-cratic principles of sound clinical observation. His research concentrated on the structure of muscle fibers and the properties of saliva, bile, and blood. 48, 693, 695

Baha ad-Dawla, 338, 339 Bailey, Charles P., 976

Baillie, Matthew (1761-1823): An English physician and pathologist, Baillie was the first to describe cirrhosis of the liver and gastric ulcers. He also wrote the first English text in the field of pathology, Morbid Anatomy of Some of the Most Important Parts of the Human Body (1793). 652, 707, 970 Baillou, (Bâillon; Baillonius), Guillaume de (1538-1616): A French physician to the Court of Henri IV, Baillou revived the Hippocratic tradition of human understanding, clinical observation, and macrocosmic concepts of illnesses. He has been called the founder of modern epidemiology. He first described pertussis and distinguished between measles and smallpox, and is credited with the first mention of adhesive pericarditis complicated by edema. He also introduced the use of the term rheumatism. 282, 283, 656, 1095 Baird, Patricia, 685 Baker, B., 310 Baker, Brenda, 1054 Baker, Sir George, 824, 825 Baker, P. T., 493 Baker, Sara Josephine, 204 Bakwin, Harry, 150 Balardini, Lodovico, 921

Baldwin IV, king of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, 337

Balfour, Francis, 759

Balmis, Francisco Xavier, 1012

Bancroft, Edward, 1099

Bancroft, Joseph, 728, 729

Bancroft, Thomas L., 664, 729

Bang, Bernhard, 627

Bankes, Isabella, 805

Bannwarth, A., 854

Banting, Frederick, 666

Banu, Rahima, 1012

Barbeau, André, 917

Bard, Samuel, 656

Bârensprung, Friedrich Wilhelm Felix von, 1093

Barlow, Sir Thomas (1845-1945): Barlow was an English physician whose specialty was children's diseases. He described infantile scurvy (Barlow's Disease), distinguishing it from rickets. He also distinguished between tuberculosis and simple meningitis. 153, 970 Barnard, Christian, 99 Barnes, Joseph K., 178 Baron, Hans, 515 Barthélémy, Eloy, 584 Barthez, Antoine C. E., 149 Bartlett, Elisha, 1078 Bartoletti, Fabrizio, 692 Barton, Alberto, 635 Bartram, M., 1048 Basch, Samuel von, 792

Basil the Great, St. (the Bishop of Caesarea), 12 Bassereau, Léon, 1032

Bateman, Thomas (1778-1821): An English physician, Bateman did important work on skin diseases, provided an accurate description of herpes praeputialis and post-scarlatina dropsy, and was the first to describe lichen urticatus. 748, 776 Bateson, William, 117, 118 Battie, William, 64 Battistine, T., 635 Bauer, J. H., 1049 Bauhinus, Caspar, 920 Baum, O., 777 Baumann, Eugen, 753 Bayne-Jones, Stanhope, 1087

Beadle, G. W. (1903-89): Beadle, along with Edward Ta-tum, did work on mutation that opened the door to the new field of biochemical genetics. They shared the Nobel Prize with J. Lederberg in 1958. 119, 154 Beale, Lionel S., 652

Beard, George Miller (1839-83): An American neurologist, Beard is best known for his concept of "neurasthenia" or "weak nerves," a condition to which he thought Americans were particularly prone. Beard also did research in the medical uses of electricity and published Medical and Surgical Uses of Electricity (1871). He also founded the magazine Archives of Electrology and Neurology (1874). 71-2, 76, 88, 698 Beccari, Iacopo Bartolomeo, 140 Bede, the Venerable, 276 Beet, E. A., 574, 575

Behring, Emil Adolf von (1854-1917): A German physician and bacteriologist, Behring served in the Army Medical Corps. He founded the science of immunology and discovered with Shibasaburo Kitasato an immunizing serum for tetanus and diphtheria. Behring was awarded the first Nobel Prize in medicine (1901). 127, 128,155, 682,1045 Bell, Benjamin, 760 Bell, J. H., 584 Bell, John, 744 Bell, Rudolph, 579 Belote, George, 849 Belsey, Mark, 722 Benedict, St., 12, 719 Benedictow, O. J., 281, 282 Benivieni, Antonio, 740 Bennett, John Hughes, 732, 847 Bennett, John V., 830 Bennike, P., 250, 253 Benson, D. F., 563 Berg, F. T., 732

Berger, Baron von, 868 Bergh, R., 777 Bergman, Abraham, 1018 Bergmann, Ernst von, 869 Berkeley, M. J., 734

Bernard, Claude (1813-78): A French physiologist, Bernard is credited with helping to establish physiology as an exact science. Among his contributions were those concerning digestion, his discovery of the glycogenic function of the liver, and his demonstration that red blood cells carry oxygen from the lungs to the tissues. 48, 51, 73, 666 Bernard, Noël, 128 Bernheim, Hippolyte, 76 Bernoulli, Daniel, 694 Berstein, Felix, 131 Bertrand, A., 804

Best, Charles Herbert (1899-1978): A Canadian physician and physiologist, Best received his medical degree from the University of Toronto (1925). Along with Frederick Grant Banting and J. J. R. Macleod, Best extracted insulin from a dog's pancreas and demonstrated that it could be used to treat diabetes mellitus. When Macleod and Banting were awarded the Nobel Prize in medicine (1923), Banting shared his prize money with Best. 653, 666 Bethencourt, Jacques de, 1030 Betten, H., 929

Beurmann, Charles Lucien de, 733 Bhowa, Mian, 414 Bibb, J., 1007

Bichat, Marie François Xavier, 636 Bidatsu, emperor of Korea, 390 Bierce, Ambrose, 697 Bierman, Stanley, 775 Biggs, R„ 622

Bilharz, Theodor Maximilian (1825-62): A German physician and zoologist, Bilharz became a professor of zoology at Cairo. He studied pathological changes in the mucous membranes of the bladder, intestines, ureters, and seminal glands. He is best known for the discovery of the parasite Schistosoma hematobin, one of the causes of the disease bilharzia, which was named after him. 456, 727, 992, 993, 995 "Bill W," 173 Billard, Charles, 149 Billings, John Shaw, 178 Birkmayer, W., 917 Bisel, S., 253 Bissell, A. D., 805 Black, Francis L., 319, 873

Blackall, John (1771-1860): An English physician, Blackall discovered that dropsy is often associated with albumin in urine and believed that this might indicate diseased kidneys. He also reported on angina pectoris. 694, 695, 748 Blacklock, D. B., 896 Blackmore, Richard, 63 Blane, Sir Gilbert, 1002, 1004 Blaud, P., 573 Blessed, Gary, 565 Bleuler, Eugen, 79 Blocq, Paul Oscar, 917 Bloomfield, Arthur, 1051 Blumberg, Baruch S., 797 Boccaccio, Giovanni, 272 Bodian, David, 949

Boë, François de la, see Sylvius of Leyden

Boerhaave, Hermann (1668-1738): A Dutch physician, Boerhaave was enormously influential during his lifetime as a professor of botany, medicine, and chemistry at Leyden. He apparently was the first to describe the sweat glands and to establish that smallpox is spread by contact alone. 16, 49, 85, 86, 636, 693-4, 1004 Boezo, M. H., 927 Bohac, Carl, 849

Boissier de la Croix de Sauvages, François, see Sauvages de la Croix, François Boisser de Boldt, J., 904 Boltz, Robert, 561

Bonaparte, Napoleon, 6, 500, 517, 744, 903 Bondy, Gustav, 869 Bonland, A., 929

Bontius, Jacobus (1592-1631 or 1632): A physician and naturalist in the service of the Dutch East India Company, Bontius is regarded as one of the founders of tropical medicine as a separate branch of medical science. He wrote the first Dutch work on the subject in which he provided the first modern description of beriberi and cholera. 645, 1099 Book, J. A., 686 Borah, Woodrow W, 40, 498

Bordet, Jules Jean Baptiste Vincent (1876-1961): Bordet wrote extensively on the properties of sera in immunized animals on bacterial hemolysis, and the Bordet-Gengou Complement fixation reaction constitutes the basis of many tests for infection. Bordet is credited for discovering the causitive agent of whooping cough in 1906. In 1919, he was awarded the Nobel Prize. 129, 1095

Bordeu, Théophile de, 86

Borelli, Giovanni A., 15

Borovsky, Peter Foritsch, 833

Boswell, James, 63, 760

Botallo, Leonardo, 1030

Botstein, D., 124

Bouchardat, Apollinaire, 665

Bouchut has been credited with penning the first important work on neurasthenia (1860) and with describing "false croup" (1852). 585, 656 Bouillaud, Jean Baptiste (1796-1881): A French physician, Bouillard was the first to identify the anterior lobes as the speech center. He also studied cirrhosis, helped establish the connection between rheumatic fever and heart disease, and recognized the value of digitalis. 940, 970 Bourgeois, Xavier, 88 Boussingault, Jean Baptiste, 752 Bowlby, John, 150 Bowman, William, 749 Boyle, Robert, 15 Boylston, Zabdiel, 1011 Bozeman, F. Marilyn, 831 Bozzolo, Camillo, 787 Bracken, Michael, 684 Bradford, William, 1009 Bradley, Daniel W., 798 Brain, P., 575 Bramwell, Byron, 883 Brasher, C. A., 782 Brass, Paul, 32 Brass, William, 211 Braudel, Fernand, 270, 516 Breckinridge, Mary, 221 Breen, K. J., 609

Breinl, Fritz, 130 Brent, Charles Henry, 174 Breschet, Gilbert, 965

Bretonneau, Pierre Fidele (1778-1862): A French physician, Bretonneau studied diseases of the mucous membranes of the digestive and respiratory tracts. He named diphtheria and distinguished it from scarlet fever. He was a proponent of the doctrine of morbid specificity, which foreshadowed the germ theory of disease. 265, 266, 656, 682, 1075 Brewer, G. J., 120 Brickell, John, 1099 Bridgman, B. C., 350

Bright, Richard (1789-1858): A British physician at Guy's Hospital in London, Bright did extensive research on the nervous system and abdominal tumors. His name is also associated with those kidney disorders collectively known as Bright's Disease. 585, 694, 746, 747, 748, 792, 970, 1078 Brill, Nathan, 1081 Bristowe, J. S., 805 Brodie, B., 601 Broeck, C. T., 1049 Brooke, Bryan, 806

Brothwell, Don, 251, 253, 254, 256, 1054 Broughham, Henry, 150 Broussais, François, 48 Brown, J. Y., 804

Brown, John (1735-88): A Scottish physician, Brown viewed diseases as caused by "debility" brought on by either overstimulation or a failure of the body to respond to stimulation. 16, 48, 86, 88 Brown, R. G., 288 Brown, Robert, 1057 Browne, John, 652

Bruce, Sir David (1855-1931): An Australian physician and bacteriologist, Bruce spent his career in the Army Medical Corps in which he discovered the cause of sleeping sickness and did research on its transmission by the tsetse fly. He is also known for his discovery of the cause of Malta fever and his research on trypanosomiasis. 625, 627, 1079 Bruce-Chwatt, L. J., 861 Bruch, Hilde, 580-1 Bruck, Carl, 1032 Brumberg, Joan, 578 Brumpt, E., 734 Bryceson, A. D. M., 969 Buchann, William, 199 Buchwald, Alfred, 854

Budd, William (1811-80): An English physician and epidemiologist, Budd demonstrated in 1856 that typhoid fever, like cholera, was a waterborne disease. He advocated disinfection as a means to prevent the spread of all contagious diseases. 648, 1075,1079 Buddha, 375, 377, 390 Budin, Pierre, 152 Buescher, E. L., 988 Buikstra, Jane, 306, 311, 314, 537 Bulloch, W., 622 Bullough, Vern, 1 Bulman, D., 885 Bumm, Ernst von, 760 Bunyan, John, 286 Burgdorf, Walter, 556 Burgdorfer, Willy, 854, 969, 982 Burkitt, D. P., 473, 669

Burnet, Sir Frank Macfarlane (1899-1985): An Austra-

lian immunologist, Burnet received his medical degree from Melbourne University (1922) and his Ph.D. from London Lister Institute (1928) after which he joined the National Institute for Medical Research. He conducted research on the genetics of the influenza virus and studied autoimmune diseases. He was knighted in 1951 and received the 1960 Nobel Prize in medicine (with P Medawar). 133, 134, 135, 138, 637, 960 Burns, Allan, 694 Burton, Robert, 62 Butlin, Henry T., 913 Buynak, E. B., 889 Byers, M. G., 1038 Bylon, David, 663

Cabanis, Pierre Jean Georges (1757-1808): A French idéologue, Cabanis was influential in stressing the importance of clinical observation, which led to the rebuilding of French medicine on essentially clinical grounds. 16, 65 Cabieses, Fernando, 537 Cabot, John, 1001

Cabot, Richard C. (1868-1939): Cabot, an American physician, discovered Cabot's ring bodies in stained red blood cells present in some cases of anemia. A professor at Harvard, he was among those who used the employment of case histories for medical treatment. 173, 640

Caelius Aurelianus (fifth century): The writings on chronic and acute diseases by Caelius Aurelianus, a Roman physician and translator, are entangled with those of Soranus of Ephesus, whose work he translated. These writings describe gout, encephalitis, speech defects, and epilepsy, and differentiate between epileptic seisures and hysterical attacks. They also advocate humane treatment for the insane. 263, 265, 267, 642, 726, 940 Cahill, Kevin, 471 Caillé, August, 153

Caius, John (Johannes Kaye) (1510-73): An English physician, Caius studied at Padua, became president of the College of Physicians of London (1555), and sought to tighten control over the licensing of physicians. In 1552, his Boke or Conseille Against the Disease Commonly Called the Sweate .. . became the first study of "sweating sickness," to be published in England. 275, 1023

Califano, Joseph, 180 Calkins, A. I., 802 Calmette, A., 1062 Campbell, Alfred Walter, 1093 Campbell, S., 324

Capivaccio, Girolamo (Hieronymous Capivaccus), 692, 695

Carini, A., 833 Carlson, E. A., 118 Carlsson, A., 976 Carlyle, Thomas, 697 Carpenter, Kenneth, 153 Carpentier, A., 917 Carriôn, Daniel, 635 Carr-Saunders, A. M., 287-8 Carson, Paul E., 573

Carswell, Sir Robert (1793-1857): A British physician and pathologist, Carswell attended Marischal College, Aberdeen, Scotland, studied morbid anatomy in Paris, and became professor of morbid anatomy at University College, London. Carswell is the author of the patho logical atlas entitled Illustrations of the Elementary Forms of Disease (1838). 652, 883 Carter, H. Vandyke, 734

Casal y Julian, Gaspar (Caspar) (1679-1759): A Spanish physician, Casal was the first to provide a clear description of pellagra in a book written in 1735 but not published until 1762. 920, 923 Casals, Jordi, 817, 819 Casserio, Giulio, 750 Cassius, Felix, 265, 266, 267 Castellani, Aldo, 1097

Castle, William Bosworth (1897-1990): An American physician, Castle revealed (1929) that pernicious anemia was due to the absence of a substance in gastric juice that would react with the factors in other foods to prevent the condition. His work led to the introduction of stomach preparations to treat pernicious anemia. 572

Castro, Fidel, 503 Cato, 193, 265 Caulfield, Ernest, 680 Cavalli-Sforza, L. L., 1040 Cavazzi, Giovanni Antonio, 296 Cazenave, Pierre Louis Alphee, 848 Celsus, Aulus Aurelius Cornelius (Aulus Celsus) (c. 25 B.C.-c. A.D. 50): A Roman encyclopedist, Celsus is regarded by many as the first important medical historian. His De Medicina is a splendid account of Roman medicine, which bridges the gap between his times and those of the Hippocratic corpus. 193, 263-9 passim, 642, 692, 695, 720, 726, 731, 736, 823, 861, 868, 901, 916, 926, 964, 1090 Centerwall, W. R., 523

Chadwick, Sir Edwin (1800-90): An English physician who was educated originally for the bar, Chadwick became an investigator for the Royal Commission on Poor Laws. His 1842 Report. . . on . . . Sanitary Condition of the Labouring Population of Great Britain, revealed the ugly and dangerous unsanitary conditions in which the working class lived. His report helped to stimulate a Public Health Act (1848) and a General Board of Health. 187, 202 Chagas, Carlos, 637 Chakraborty, R., 1039,1040 Chakravarti, A. K., 473, 1039, 1040 Chalmers, A. J., 734 Chandler, Asa C., 1057 Chandler, C. A., 804 Chang, 347 Chang Chi, 22, 53 Chang Lu (Zhang Lu), 56 Chang Ts'ung-cheng, 25, 57 Chang Yuan-su, 25 Chao, 347 Chao Yuanfang, 57 Chapin, C. W., 1070 Charaka, 1090

Charcot, Jean Martin (1825-93): A French physician and neurologist, Charcot was a famous teacher at La Salpetrifcre where he founded the French school of neurology. He was the first to demonstrate a clear relationship between psychology and physiology, and described the neurogenic arthropathy known as Charcot's disease. 73-4, 76, 88, 585, 717 Charlemagne, 511, 514 Charles I, king of England, 998 Charles II, king of England, 999

Charles V, holy Roman emperor (Charles I of Spain), 1082

Chase, Merrill, 135

Chatin, Adolphe, 752

Chauliac, Guy de, 902

Chaumette, Antoine, 1030

Ch'en Tzu-ming, 25

Cheyne, George, 63, 65

Cheyne, John, 585

Chhen Chih, 347

Chhen Pang-Hsien, 348

Chhung Erh, 349

Chien-i, 978

Ch'io, see Pien Ch'io

Chipley, William Stout, 579

Choo, Qui-Lim, 797

Chou, Duke of, 349

Chou Ta-kuan, 429

Christian IV, king of Denmark, 177

Christie, Ronald, 708

Christophers, S. R., 422

Chu Chen-heng, 57

Chunghye, king of Korea, 391

Cicero, 268, 861

Cipolla, Carlo, 198, 514

Clark, William, 320

Clarke, Edward, 88

Clement VI, Pope, 614

Clossey, Samuel, 694, 695

Clot-Barthelemy, Antoine, 30

Clyde, David, 856, 857

Cobbold, T. Spencer, 728

Coburn, Alvin E, 971

Cockburn, T. Aidan,529,1054

Coindet, Jean-François, 752

Cole, Rufus, 941

Colebrook, Dora, 721

Colebrook, Leonard, 720-1

Colles, Abraham, 1048

Collie, Alexander, 968

Collier, Leslie, 1024

Collins, E. Treacher, 903, 904

Collis, Edgar, 190

Colombo (Columbus), Matteo Realdo (c. 1516-59): An Italian anatomist and physiologist, Colombo succeeded Vesalius to the chair of anatomy at the University of Padua before moving on to chairs at Pisa and Rome. He was the first to describe correctly the position of the lens of the eye. His work on pulmonary circulation of the blood may have borrowed heavily from Servetus but clearly describes the work of the cardial, pulmonary, and aortic valves. 750 Colp, R., 805 Coltman, Charles, 927

Columbus, Christopher (Cristobal Colon), 40, 177, 498,

521, 523, 536, 920, 1029, 1054, 1058, 1103 Columella, 193 Combe, C., 805 Come, Frère, 1091 Compston, D. A. S., 885

Cone, Thomas, 153 Confucius, 350 Connolly, John, 66 Conor, Alfred, 985 Constantine the Great, 196 Constantine IX, 601 Constantius I, 572

Cook, Captain James (1728-79): English navigator, known for his exploration of the Pacific, who demonstrated, as James Lind had previously, that despite lengthy voyages, scurvy could be prevented aboard ships with the consumption of citrus juice. 433, 490, 498,1004 Cook, D. C., 310, 311, 313, 314 Cook, Noble David, 324 Cook, Sherburne Friend, 40, 498 Cooke, John, 585 Cooke, W. Trevor, 806 Cooper, Marcia, 931 Cordes, Lester G., 831 Corey, Lawrence, 775 Correia, Gaspar, 415, 643, 645 Correns, Carl, 117

Corvisart, François Rémy Lucien, 1050 Corvisart des Marest, Jean-Nicholas (1755-1821): Corvisart was among the first French physicians to advocate more precise methods of diagnosis, including one that utilized a thorough physical. He was the author of the first treatise on cardiology (1806) and became physician to Napoleon. 17, 48, 694, 940, 1078 Costoeus, Jean, 903 Cotugno, Domenico, 748 Cotzias, George, C., 917 Couch, James, 881 Coult, 0., 414 Councilman, William, 570 Cournand, André, 93 Courtois, Bernard, 752 Cowper, 46

Cox, Herald Rea (1907- ): An American virologist, Cox received his degree from Johns Hopkins in 1931. He developed chick embryo vaccines against Rocky Mountain spotted fever and epidemic typhus fever. In addition, he developed the first killed vaccines in the field of virology for eastern and western equine encephalitis viruses. 960,1083 Cox, L. B., 735

Craigie, David (1793-1866): A Scottish physician, Craigie was the owner and editor of the Edinburgh Medical and Surgical Journal. He wrote Elements of Morbid Anatomy and is reputed to have introduced the name relapsing fever to describe the Edinburgh epidemic of 1843. 847, 967 Crasistratus, 268 Crawfurd, John, 432 Credé, Karl Siegmund, 760

Creighton, Charles (1847-1927): A British physician and medical historian, Creighton's History of Epidemics in Britain (1891—4) was a classical contribution to modern epidemiology. In addition, he translated into English the Handbuch der historisch-geographischen Pathologie of August Hirsch (1860-4). 1, 321, 1023, 1024

Creutzfeldt, W., 667

Crick, Francis, 133,134

Crosby, William, 722, 724

Cruveilhier, Jean (1791-1874): Cruveilhier was the first professor of pathological anatomy at the University of Paris. He provided the first description of multiple sclerosis, and an early description of Cruveilhier's palsy. He also proposed the theory that all diseases derived from phlebitis. 585, 883 Cruz, Osvaldo Gongalves (1872-1917): A Brazilian physician, Cruz established Brazil's public hygiene service and began a mosquito control program. He cleared Rio de Janeiro of yellow fever, small pox, and bubonic plague. 540, 1105 Cullen, William (1710-90): A Scottish physician and chemist, Cullen became the chief figure at the Edinburgh School of Medicine and one of the premier clinicians of the eighteenth century. He was instrumental in establishing a new nosology or classification of disease, and wrote a comprehensive and influential medical text. 16, 48, 64, 68,1000 Cummings, J. L., 563 Currie, James, 202 Cuthbert, St., 276 Czermak, Johann Nepomuk, 18

Dahl, L. K., 791 Daigo, emperor of Japan, 378 Dalziel, T. Kennedy, 805 Damien de Veuster, 839 Dampier, William, 432, 731 Danielssen, Daniel C., 839 Dante, Alighieri, 513, 515 Darius III, king of Persia, 507 Darling, Samuel, 782

Darwin, Charles Robert (1809-82): Darwin was an English naturalist who put forward the theory of evolution through the influence of natural selection. His most famous work, and one of the most important works ever published, is On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection (1859) in which he described his theory of evolution. In 1871 he presented evidence that humans evolved from subhuman forms. 69,153, 538, 637, 685 Davaine, Casimir, 582, 584 da Vinci, Leonardo, see Vinci, Leonardo da Davis, G. E., 960

Davis, Kingsley (1908- ): An American sociologist and demographer. Davis is the author of Human Society (1949), The Population of India and Pakistan (1949), and the editor of A Crowded Hemisphere (1958). 329, 418, 423 Davison, Francis, 656 Davy, Sir Humphry, 752 Dawson, J. W., 883 Dawud ibn Umar al-Antaki, 339 De, Sambhunath N., 643, 644 Dean, Geoffrey, 883 Dechambre, A., 584, 585 deGroote, J., 805

Dejerine, Joseph Jules (1849-1917): Dejerine, a pupil of Charcot, carried on the tradition of French neurology with, among other things, his 1893 description of hypertrophic progressive interstitial neuritis, "Dejerine-Sottas" disease. 585, 890 Dekkers, Frederick, 748 Dell, W., 936 Deluca, M. A., 254 Demarquay, Jean-Nicolas, 727 Demeter (Greek goddess), 573

DeMonbreun, W. A., 782 Denman, Thomas, 706 Dennig, H., 960

Derrick, Edward Holbrook, 957, 959-60 Desault, Pierre-Joseph, 744

Descartes, René (1596-1650): A French mathematician and philosopher, Descartes studied law and possibly medicine at the University of Poitiers, where he received his degree in 1616. For Descartes, the human body was a machine save for the pineal gland, which housed a rational soul that directed the machine. 14, 15,61 Descomby, P., 1045 DeSoto, Hernando, 320 Desprès, A., 585 d'Este, Augustus, 833 Dewees, William P., 154 Dick, George, 992 Dick, Gladys, 992 Dickens, Dorothy, 931 Dickson, E., 732 Diderot, Denis, 201 Dieffenbach, Johann Friedrich, 649 Diggs, L. W., 120, 1007

Diocles, of Carystus (fourth century B.C.): Diocles was a Greek physician whom Pliny ranked next to Hippocrates in importance. He was a leading representative of the Dogmatist school, which introduced philosophical speculation to Hippocratic material. 268, 739 Dionysius, the Kyrtos, 264

Dioscorides, Pedanius Anazarbeus (first century): A Greek army physician who served under Nero, Dioscorides has been described as the founder of our materia medica. His Materia Medicae discussed over 600 medicinal plants. 29, 264, 736, 826, 964 Dixon, F.J., 747 Dobson, Matthew, 665 Dobyns, Henry F., 322, 323, 324, 524 Dochez, Raymond, 941 Dock, George, 845 Dole, Vincent, 172

Doll, Sir William Richard Shaboe, 106 Dois, Michael, 197

Domagk, Gerard (Gerhardt; Gerhard) (1895-1964): A German chemist and pathologist, Domagk introduced sulfa drugs to initiate the age of chemotherapy in 1935. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in medicine in 1939, but was forced by the Nazis to decline the prize, which was finally awarded to him in 1947. 879, 941 Donaldson, James, 1079 Donath, W. F„ 610 Donné, Alexandre, 847 Donovan, Charles, 833 Dowdle, W. R., 778 Dowling, Harry Filmore, 150

Down, John Langdon Haydon (1828—96): Down was a British physician who wrote on the degeneration of race as a result of marriages of consanguinity. He also described the clinical picture of mongolism. The disorder is now commonly called Down (or Down's) Syndrome, although Down mistakenly proposed a theory of racial regression to explain it. 122, 685 Downey, H., 799 Downs, Wilbur, 7, 1106 Dozy, A. M., 121

Drake, Daniel (Daniell) (1785-1852): An American physician and medical geographer, Drake was the founder and editor of the Western Journal of the Medical and

Drake, Daniel (cont.)

Physical Sciences (1828—38) and also founder of the Ohio Medical College, which is now the Medical College of the University of Cincinnati. His Systematic Treatise, Historical, Etiological, and Practical, on the Principal Diseases of the Interior Valley of North America (1850) was the most important work on malaria in the region published to that time. 1078 Drake, Francis Sir, 177, 1002 Drummond, J. C., 152

Dubini, Angelo (1813-1902): An Italian physician,

Dubini's most important discovery was that of the European hookworm Ancylostoma duodenale. He also described electric chorea characterized by sudden and violent movements, now called "Dubini's chorea." 457, 786

Dubos, Jean, 1063

Dubos, René (1901-82): A French-born microbiologist and pathologist, Dubos received his Ph.D. from Rutgers in 1927. He did research in antibiotics, acquired immunity, and tuberculosis, and discovered the crystalline form of a soil-bacterial agent that destroys "gram-positive" germs, a discovery that formed the basis for the new field of chemotherapy. He is also the author of a number of works on the history of medicine and disease. 288, 474, 941, 1063 Du Buys, L. R., 979

Duchenne, Guillaume Benjamin Amand, 890

Ducrey, August, 1032

Duhring, Louis A., 777

Dumas, Jean-Baptiste, 752

Dundas, David, 970

Dunstan, Helen, 357

Durey, Michael, 648

Düring, Michael, 991

Duverny, Joseph, 868

Ebers, G. C., 885 Eberth, Carl Joseph, 1075 Echthius, Johannes, 1000, 1004 Economo, Constantin, 710 Edison, Thomas Alva, 869 Edward I, king of England, 273 Edward III, king of England, 276 Edwards, Cecile Hoover, 931 Edwards, Harold, 806 Edwards, Lowell, 976 Egas Moniz, Antonio Caetano de, 79 Ehrlich, E. G., 599

Ehrlich, Paul (1854-1915): A German bacteriologist, Ehrlich initiated many advances in biomedical research. One of his achievements was the synthesis of Salvarsan and the demonstration of its therapeutic efficacy in syphilis and yaws, which opened the field of chemotherapy. He also did important work in antitoxin immunity, cancer, and described the first autoimmune disease. He received the Nobel Prize in medicine in 1908 (with Elie Metchnikoff), and was nominated again in 1912 and 1913. 128-9, 130, 133, 134, 138, 559, 572, 653, 847, 1045 Eijkman, Christian, 1815

Einthoven, Willem (1860-1927): A German physiologist at Leyden, Einthoven invented the electrocardiogram (1903) for which he received the Nobel Prize in 1924. 92

Eisenberg, L., 475

Eisinger, Josef, 827

Eliot, Martha M., 979

Elizabeth I, queen of England, 177

Ell, Stephen, 3

Elmquist, E., 894

Elvehjem, Conrad A., 923

El Yahudi, 873

Emerson, Haven (1874-1957): An American physician, Emerson was a professor of medicine and public health administration, as well as New York City's Health Commissioner and a member of the New York City Board of Health. He did much work on diabetes and authored Alcohol, Its Effects on Man (1934). He was also the editor of Alcohol and Man (1932). 666, 668, 673, 888 Emmel, V. E., 120 Emmons, C. W., 731, 733 Empedocles, 115

Enders, John Franklin (1897-1985): Enders and T. C. Peebles isolated the viruses of mumps and measles. He also did important research with T. H. Weiler and F. C. Robbins. They grew the poliomyelitis virus in cultures of different tissues, which eventually led to vaccine production. Enders, Weller, and Robbins were awarded the Nobel Prize in 1954. 874, 943 Engelhardt, Tristam, 87 Engels, Friedrich, 26, 187, 291 English, Peter, 680 Ephesus, 804 Er, 86

Erasistratus of Cos (c. 300-250 B.C.): A Greek physician and physiologist, Erasistratus was also an anatomist who described the heart and its valves, and seems to have anticipated the discovery of the circulation of blood. He believed the origin of the nervous system to be in the brain and distinguished motor from sensory nerves. 11, 47, 652 Erasmus (Geert; Geerts), Desiderius, 61 Erb, Wilhelm, 893

Ermengem, Emile Pierre Marie van, 624 Escherich, Theodor, 979

Esquirol, Jean Etienne Dominique (1772-1840): A French psychiatrist, Esquirol was a student of Philippe Pinel, whom he succeeded at La Salpetriöre. Esquirol's concentration was on clinical observation, rather than on the classification of mental disorders. His Maladies mentales (1838) was the first modern textbook on psychiatry. 66, 73, 565 Euripides, 736, 964 Eustachi, Bartolomeo, 750 Evans, Alice, 625, 626, 627 Evans, R. Winston, 574 Evliya, Cheleb, 339

Fabricius ab Aquapendente, Hieronymus (Girolamo Fabrizzi) (1537-1619): A pupil of G. Falloppio and the teacher of William Harvey at Padua, Fabricius described the valves in the veins and wrote at length on embryology. 116, 750 Fabricius, Wilhelm of Hilden (Wilhelm Fabry) (1560-1634): A German physician and one of the eminent surgeons of his time, Fabricius has been called the "Father of German Surgery." He was the first to clas-

sify burns and was also the first to remove gallstones from a patient who was still alive. 102, 398 Fagan, B., 306 Fahr, T., 749 Fanconi, Guido, 658 Fan Hsing-chun, 346 Farber, Sidney, 848 Farishta, I., 415 Farr, William, 18,187, 203 Farris, William Wayne, 376, 479 Fauchard, Pierre, 926 Faust, Ernest, 996 Fedchenko, Aleksei, 688 Fehleisen, Friedrich, 720 Feinstone, S. M., 795 Felix, Arthur, 1081 Felsen, J., 804

Fenner, Frank John (1914- ): Fenner, working with F. M. Burnet, did important work on immunological tolerance including the introduction of the concept of the "self marker." In addition his work on myxomatosis is considered a classic in historical epidemiology. 133,319 Fenwick, Samuel, 805 Ferguson, R. G., 528

Fernel, Jean (Jean Fernelius) (1497-1558): A French court physician, mathematician, and astronomer, Fernel has been highly regarded as a clinician. His books on physiology and pathology, which provide much detail in the clinical field, were also the first systematic treatments of these subjects. 692, 693, 759, 1030

Ferriar, John, 202, 695 Ferrier, Auger, 1030 Filatov, Nil F., 799 Fildes, P., 622 Findlay, L., 978 Finlay, Roger, 284

Finlay y Barres, Carlos Juan (1833-1915): A Cuban physician, Finlay was the first to suggest that yellow fever was transmitted to humans by mosquitoes. His hypothesis was tested by the Reed Commission in Cuba and, following this, yellow fever was quickly brought under control in the Western Hemisphere. 502,1105 Fischer, J. N., 902 Fiset, P., 961 Fisher, J. W, 792 Flatz, G., 813, 816 Fleck, Ludwik, 1029,1032

Fleming, Sir Alexander (1881-1955): A British bacteriologist, Fleming spent his career studying the body's defenses against bacterial infections. He discovered penicillin (1928), ushering in the era of antibiotics. He was knighted in 1944 and received (with E. B. Chain and H. W. Florey) the Nobel Prize in medicine (1945). 127 Flexner, Simon (1863-1946): An American pathologist and bacteriologist, Flexner developed Flexner's serum for cerebral meningitis (1907), directed research that led to identification of the virus causing poliomyelitis, and discovered the dysentery bacillus, which is named for him. 777 Flinn, Michael W., 280, 288

Flint, Austin, Sr. (1812-86): Flint was an outstanding American clinician whose research ranged from heart murmur ("Austin Flint Murmur") to anemia. His research was also important in helping American physicians to differentiate between typhoid and typhus. 572, 1083

Floyer, Sir John (1649-1734): A British physician, Floyer was the first to describe changes in lungs caused by emphysema, and made the first observations of the pulse rate using a pulse watch, which was his invention. Floyer also wrote the first book on geriatrics, Medicina Gerocomica (1724). 92, 707 Fod6re, F. E, 751 Foege, W. H., 710 Folet, H., 804 Folin, Otto, 765 Fontana, V., 804 Ford, John, 299, 558 Ford, R. N., 931 Forest, Peter, 656 Forestus, 903 Forkner, C. E., 846 Formicola, V., 256 Forssmann, Werner, 92-3 Foucault, Michel, 63 Fourcroy, Antoine Frangois de, 764 Fournier, Jean, 583 Fournier, Jean-Alfred, 1032 Fowler, Thomas, 846 Fowler, W. M„ 640

Fracastoro (Fracastorius), Girolamo (c. 1480-c. 1553): An Italian physician, Fracastoro has been called the father of scientific epidemiology and was the first to present a consistent theory of contagious disease. Fracastoro attributed the spread of epidemics to small germs, which carried the disease. Today, however, he is best known for a poem he wrote, which remains the most famous of all medical poems, and from which the name syphilis was derived. 18, 964, 1030, 1063, 1082 Fraikor, A. L„ 1039, 1040 Frame, John, 817 Francis, Edward, 1070 Francis of Assisi, St., 901, 902 Francis II, king of France, 868 Franco, Pierre, 902

Frank, Johann Peter (1745-1821): An Austrian physician, Frank wrote the first major treatise on public health. In it he insisted that one of the duties of rulers is to safeguard the public health. 15, 199, 201 Frankel, Albert, 941 Franklin, Benjamin, 825 Frapolli, Francesco, 918, 920 Fraser, John, 685 Fräser, T. R., 572 Freeman, Mavis, 960 Fresenius, J. B. G. W., 735

Freud, Sigmund (1856-1939): An Austrian psychoanalyst and psychiatrist, Freud is remembered as the father of the psychoanalytic school of psychiatry. He divided the mental apparatus into the id, the ego, and the superego, introduced the concept of the libido, and viewed the suppression of sexual urges as central to his theoretical system. 50, 77, 78-80, 89, 173, 579, 580 Freund, Jules, 135 Friedlander, Carl, 941 Frois, Luis, 383 Frölich, Theodor, 1005 Fromme, W., 840, 842 Frontinus, 193, 194 Fuchs, Adalbert, 898 Fujikawa, Yu, 376, 382, 383, 386, 387 Fujiwara family, 379, 380 Fujiwara no Kanezane, 382 Fujiwara no Michinaga, 375,379, 380

Fujiwara Teika, 382

Funk, Casimir (1884-1967): A Polish-born biochemist, Funk received a Ph.D. in organic chemistry from the University of Bern. He subsequently worked at the Lister Institute in London on nutrition, male and female hormones, and the importance of oncotine and oncostimuline in the treatment and prevention of cancer. In 1912 Funk coined the word vitamine which was later changed to vitamin. 142, 153, 205, 610, 1005 Furbee, Louanna, 882 Furculow, M. L., 782 Fuss, George, 893 Fyfe, Andrew, 752

Gaffky, Georg (1850-1918): Along with Carl Eberth and Edwin Klebs, Gaffky was instrumental in identifying the causative agent of typhoid fever, and in 1884 he was the first to grow pure cultures of the bacillus. 1075, 1079 Galambos, John, 651

Galen (of Pergamon) (c.l30-c.200): A Roman physician, Galen studied medicine in Alexandria and became physician to Emperor Marcus Aurelius. He synthesized and unified Greek knowledge of anatomy and medicine in at least 100 treatises, which continued to dominate medicine throughout the Middle Ages and until relatively recent times. 12, 14, 27, 29, 47, 102,147-8, 193, 263-9 passim, 335, 413, 584, 615, 635, 652, 656, 688, 692, 706, 718, 720, 726, 732, 736, 740, 759, 838, 861, 900, 901, 915, 929, 964, 1001, 1048, 1063,1089, 1090 Galileo, 15

Gall, Franz Joseph, 67 Galle, F., 893

Gallo, Robert, 383, 384, 549 Galtier, Pierre Victor, 965 Gama, Vasco da, 1001 Gamboa, E. T., 711 Gandhi, Mahatma, 32 Gangarosa, Eugene, 644 Gao, Y. T., 371

Garrison, Fielding Hudson, 1093

Garrod, Sir Alfred Baring (1819-1907): A London physician, Garrod was the leading authority of his time on gout, and discovered uric acid in the blood of patients with the condition. He used lithia to treat the disorder. He was knighted in 1887 and later named physician extraordinary to Queen Victoria (1896). 600, 764 Garrod, Sir Archibald Edward (1857-1936): An English physician at St. Bartholomew's Hospital in London, Garrod's classic study of Inborn Errors of Metabolism, gives him claim to being the founder of human biochemical genetics. 116, 118-19, 124,154, 685 Gasbarrini, Antonio, 724 Gaskoin, G., 415 Gassendi, Pierre, 15 Gaston, Lucy Page, 179 Gates, Frederick T., 787 Gay-Lussac, Joseph Louis, 752 Geevarghese, P. J., 670 Ge Hong (Ko Hung), 56, 354, 375, 390 Genevieve of Paris, St., 719 Gengou, Octave, 1095 Genji, prince of Japan, 380, 381 Gentile da Foligno, 740 Gentleman of Elvas, 320 George III, king of England, 65, 883, 970 Gerhard, William Wood (1809-72): An American physi cian, Gerhard (a student of Pierre Louis) is credited with providing the first accurate description of tuberculosis meningitis (1834). As others in the nineteenth century he also distinguished clearly between typhus and typhoid fever (1837) in his paper "On the Typhus Fever, which Occurred at Philadelphia in . .. 1836 . . . showing the Distinction between this Form of Disease and ... Typhoid Fever with Alteration of the Follicles of the Small Intestine." 1075, 1078,1082 Gerlin II, Count, 989 Germuth, F. G., 747 Gilbert, F., 1038 Gilchrist, T. C., 732, 733 Gilder, D. V., 415 Gilfillan, S. C„ 823, 824 Ginzburg, L., 805, 806 Giotto di Bowdone, 515 Gladykowska-Rzeczycka, J., 258 Glenister, T. W., 115

Glisson, Francis (1597-1677): An English physician, Glisson penned an excellent description of rickets, which was known for a time as "Glisson's disease." He was also the first to prove that muscles contract when brought into action. 152, 978 Glover, J. A., 973 Gluge, Gottlieb, 652 Glynn, L. E., 653 Gocke, D. J., 817 Gockel, Eberhard, 827 Godefridus, 275 Gold, W., 782

Goldberger, Joseph (1874-1929): Born in central Europe, Goldberger received his medical degree from Bellevue Hospital Medical College, New York University (1895) and entered the Public Health Service in 1899. He was a pioneer in the study of pellagra, which he revealed to be a disease caused by dietary deficiency when others believed it to be caused by an unknown microorganism. 874, 922-3,1081 Goldblatt, Harry, 793 Goldflam, Samuel, 893 Goldgaber, D. E., 123 Goldsmith, Grace A., 923 Goldstein, H. I., 806 Golob, M, 805

Gomara, Francisco Lopez de, 498, 537 Good, Byron, 33 Good, Robert, 134 Goodall, Edward Wilberforce, 992 Goodman, A., 313

Goodpasture, Ernest William (1886-1969): An American pathologist, Goodpasture received his medical degree from Johns Hopkins in 1912. His research centered on infectious diseases, etiology, pathogenesis, and viruses, and he isolated the virus causing mumps, while working with Claud D. Johnson (1934). 660, 889 Goodwin, Donald, 60 Gookin, Daniel, 320 Gopalan, C., 923

Gordon, Alexander (1752-99): A British obstetrician, Gordon of Aberdeen was the first to point out the contagious nature of puerperal fever, anticipating I. P. Sem-melweis and O. W. Holmes by a full half-century. 720, 956

Gorgas, William Crawford (1854-1920): An American surgeon, Gorgas received his medical degree.from Bellevue Hospital Medical College, New York University (1879). Following the discovery of the mosquito

Aedes aesgypti, as the carrier of yellow fever, Gorgas launched remarkably successful mosquito control campaigns to eradicate the disease in Havana and Panama. 502, 1105 Gotlieb, C., 805 Goto Konzan, 58 Gougerot, H., 733 Gough, J., 708

Gowers, Sir William Richard (1845-1915): A physician and professor at University College, London, Grower made numerous contributions to the field of neurosurgery including his work on diseases of the spinal cord among them his description of "Gower's tract." His Manual of Diseases of the Nervous System was published in 9 volumes (1886-8). 845, 917 Graham, Sylvester, 88 Graham, Thomas, 749 Grandjean, Philippe, 822 Grasset, E., 1049 Grassi, B., 729

Grassi, Giovanni Battista, 786 Graves, Robert, 1078 Greenberg, D. A., 1041 Greenfield, W. S., 584 Greenough, F. B., 776-7

Gregg, Sir Norman McAlister (1892-1966): Gregg pointed out congenital defects in infants that develop when their mothers suffered from rubella early in pregnancy. 154, 988 Gregory of Tours, Bishop, 510, 630 Griesinger, Wilhelm (1817-68): Griesinger was a German psychiatrist and physician with wide-ranging interests. He has been credited with the discovery of hookworm anemia, with research on muscular dystrophy with pseudo-hypertrophy (Duchenne-Griesinger Diseases), and with bringing leadership in psychiatry to Germany. He was also one of the founders of the Journal of Physiological Medicine. 74-5, 457, 565, 995 Grifford, Myrnie A., 732 Grijns, Gerrit, 610 Grimm, Jürgen, 264 Grin, E. I., 1034 Griscom, John H., 203, 204 Groner, Y., 123 Gruber, Max von, 129 Gruby, David, 731, 732 Guörin, C., 1062 Guerra, Francisco, 498, 1054 Guillimeau, Jacques, 706 Guillotin, Joseph-Ignace, 965

Gull, Sir William Withey (1816-90): Gull was a British clinician at Guy's Hospital, London, who presented the first clear description of arteriolosclerotic atrophy of the kidney, wrote a classic description of myxoetoma, named anorexia nervosa, and established it as a disease entity. 579-80, 751 Gunderson, E., 666 Gunz, Frederick, 845 Gusella, J. F., 789 Guthrie, C. G., 574 Guthrie, D., 868 Gutman, A. B., 764

Guy de Chauliac (1300-68): A French physician, Guy de Chauliac studied medicine in Toulouse, Montpellier, and Bologna, and became one of the most influential fourteenth-century surgeons. He was the author of In-ventorium Sive Collectorium in Parte Chirurgiciali Medicine (1363), which was a collection of much of the medical and especially surgical knowledge of his time. 277, 512, 902 Guze, Samuel, 60

Habel, Karl, 889 Haberman, E., 1045

Hackett, Cecil John (1905— ): An American epidemiologist, Hackett devoted much of his career to investigating the origin of the human treponematoses and has made significant contributions to treponematology with his observations on bone changes wrought by yaws and syphilis. 522, 1027, 1053,1054,1099 Haddon, D. R., 670 Hadfield, G., 806 Haeckel, Ernst Heinrich, 70 Haeser, Heinrich, 776

Haffkine, Waldemar Mordecai Wolff (1860-1930): A Russian-born physician, Haffkine worked for the Indian government. He was the first to develop a successful vaccine against cholera and developed a vaccine against bubonic plague as well (1897). 128, 416, 423 Haldane, H. S., 190

Hales, Stephen (1677-1761): An English clergyman, Hales is best known for his invention of the manometer with which he was the first in medical circles to measure blood pressure. 694, 792 Hale-White, W., 804 Hall, A. J., 710 Hall, Edward, 1023 Hall, Marion, 401 Hall, Marshall, 70, 71 Hall, Sherwood, 401, 402, 403, 404, 405 Haller, Albrecht von, 63 Hallier, Ernst Hans, 648 Halsted, J. A., 928

Halsted, William S. (1852-1922): A well-known physician and professor at the Johns Hopkins Medical School, Halsted made many important advances in surgical procedures and anesthesia. 172, 753 Haly Abbas (Ali ibn al-Abbas al-Majusi) (930-94): Haly Abbas was a Persian physician who wrote the famous encyclopedic treatise, Kitab al-Maliki, which included a section on anatomy. This section became the teaching text at the school of medicine in Salerno, Italy, and was not replaced until the twelfth century. 29, 740 Hamilton, Alice, 189 Hamilton, Robert, 888 Hammond, E. C., 106,184 Hammond, William A., 173 Hamuda al-Muradi, 30 Hanau, Arthur, 103 Handler, Jerome S., 501, 825 Han Fei, 54 Hanna, J. M., 493 Hannaway, Caroline, 199 Hannibal, 508 Hansen, A. G. H., 834, 838 Hanshaw, J. A., 659 Hardy, Harriet, 191 Hargraves, Malcolm, 849 Hariot, T., 317, 318 Harken, Dwight E., 976 Harris, F., 806 Harris, H., 119 Harris, Norman, 881 Harris, Walter, 148 Harrison, Tinsley R., 695

Harvey, William (1578—1657): Harvey is most famous for demonstrating that blood circulation in animals is impelled by the beat of the heart through arteries and veins. However, he also made many other contributions to medicine, among them his argument against the doctrine of the "performation" of the fetus, and the first work published by an Englishman on midwifery. 15, 16, 61, 91, 92, 116, 652, 692, 693, 1095 Hashimoto, Hakuju, 1086 Hatcher, John, 282

Hattori Toshiro, 374, 376, 377, 379, 383 Haurowitz, Felix, 130, 133, 137, 138 Havelock-Charles, R., 672 Hawkins, John, 177 Hayem, George, 571, 572 Haygarth, John, 971 Hayhurst, Emery R., 189 Hayne, Theodore B., 1105 Hazeltine, Richard, 874 Head, Henry, 1093 Heagerty, J. J., 524

Heberden, William (1710-1801): An English physician, Heberden differentiated chickenpox from smallpox (1764), and presented a classic description of angina pectoris, while also coining the term. In addition, he described a form of rheumatic gout in which bony nodules (Heberden's nodes) develop in the fingers. 91, 92, 601, 906, 1093 Hecker, Ewald, 75

Hecker, Justus Friedrich Karl (1795-1850): A German historical epidiomologist, Hecker wrote of the Black Death, the dancing mania, and the English sweating sickness. 275, 1023 Heidelberger, Michael (1888—1991): An American chemist, Heidelberger is considered the founder of immunochemistry. He also conducted research in organic chemistry, sodium—uranium compounds, and chemotherapy for which he received numerous awards, including the Pasteur Medal from the Swedish Medical Society (1960). 133, 941 Heine, Jacob von, 942 Heiple, K., 308 Helgason, T., 667

Helmholtz, Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von, 17,18 Helmont, Jean Baptiste van (1577-1644): Helmont was instrumental in describing the digestive process. He also discovered carbon dioxide and invented the word "gas." 15, 47, 48 Helwich, Christianus, 694 Hench, Philip S., 765, 769 Henderson, Donald A., 1012

Henle, Friedrich Gustav Jakob (1809-85): A German pathologist and anatomist, Henle is considered the founder of histology, the science of microscopic study of tissues. He studied the anatomic structure of hair, blood vessels, nails, and the nervous system, and also discovered the looped portion of the kidney tubule (Henle's loop). 17, 18-19, 648 Henle, Gertrude, 889 Henle, W., 799

Henry VII, king of England, 1024 Heraclitus of Ephesus, 716 Herbst, Ernst, 1057 Hermann, R., 648 Herodotus, 263, 716, 776, 925 Herophilus of Chalcedon, 11, 12

Herrick, James Bryan (1861-1954): An American physician, Herrick provided an excellent description of coronary thrombosis and used the electrocardiogram to identify coronary artery disease. He is also remembered as the first physician to identify and write about sickle-cell anemia. 92, 120, 573, 1007 Hershey, J. M., 653 Hertig, M., 635 Hertz, Hilda, 927, 931

Hess, Alfred Fabian (1875-1933): An American physician, Hess devoted much of his career to a study of nutritional disorders. He wrote a History of Scurvy (1920) and a study of rickets containing many of his clinical observations (1929). Hess also showed from his experiments that rubella is caused by a virus. 978, 979, 1051 Hesychius, 268 Hethcote, Herbert, 761 Heuper, Wilhelm, 191 Hibberd, P. L., 885 Hideyoshi, 383 Higgs, Robert, 331 Hill, John, 178 Hillary, I. B., 686 Hilleman, M. R, 795, 889 Hilton, David, 857 Himsworth, Harold P., 653, 670 Hinton, James, 869

Hippocrates of Cos (c. 460-375 B.C.): A Greek physician, Hippocrates is generally considered to be the "father of medicine." Although we know little about him, he is reputed to have been a fine clinician, as well as the founder of a medical school and the author of a number of books, though most of the works attributed to him were written by other members of the Hippocratic school. These works are collectively know as the Corpus Hippocraticum, which summarized much that was known about disease in the ancient world. 11, 18, 29, 47, 102, 115,116, 140, 187, 262, 263-9, 335, 413, 585, 615, 635, 648, 656, 679, 692, 697, 720, 739, 740, 744, 759, 776, 786, 795, 803, 838, 861, 868, 873, 888, 908, 916, 940, 969, 1001, 1004, 1044, 1048,1065, 1075, 1080,1090 Hiro, Y., 988

Hirsch, August (1817-94): A German medical historian, Hirsch was the author of the classic Handbuch der historisch-geographischen Pathologie (1860-4). A revised addition was translated into English by Charles Creighton and published by the English New Sydenham Society in 1883-6. 1, 2, 7, 94, 144, 275, 296, 500, 609-10, 719, 752, 873, 874, 888, 939, 940, 1050, 1095

Hirschberg, Julius, 905

Hirst, Leonard Fabian, 423

Hissette, J., 896

Hobbs, Anna Pierce, 882

Hodgkins, Thomas, 1079

Hoffman, Erich, 1032

Hoffman, Frederick, L., 190, 673

Hoffmann, Friedrich (Frederick of Halle) (1660-1742): A German physician and chemist, Hoffmann elaborated a mechanist theory that viewed the body as a sort of hydraulic machine. He also left behind clinical descriptions of many diseases including rubella, called "Ger-

man measles" because of his description. 16, 48, 85, 190, 639, 693, 694, 695 Hogberg, Ulf, 216 Hogikyan, N. D„ 1038 Hohenheim, Phillipus von, see Paracelsus Holladay, A. J., 935, 936

Holmes, Oliver Wendell (1809-94): An American physician and author, Holmes received his medical degree from Harvard (1836). In an article entitled "The Contagiousness of Puerperal Fever" (1842-43), he argued correctly that the disease was contagious and could be carried by physicians from one patient to another. He also experimented with the use of ether and suggested the name "anesthesia." 165, 720, 956, 1014-15 Hoist, Axel, 1005 Holzel, A., 813

Home, Francis (1719-1813): A Scottish physician, Home was the first to discover that yeast ferments sugar in diabetic urine. He also vaccinated with material from measles, obtaining some immunity. His Inquiry into the Nature, Cause and Cure of the Croup (1765) contains the first clear systematic description of diphtheria. 656, 873 Homer, 262, 264, 656, 1063 Hong, Lysa, 433 Hood, Lou, 136

Hooke, Robert (1635-1703): An English scientist and natural philosopher, Hooke studied at Oxford, where he became an assistant to Robert Boyle. Hooke was an early microscopist who gave the name "cell" to formations in plants that were revealed by the microscope. 15,103 Hooker, Edna, 936 Hooper, David, 930

Hope, James (1801-41): An English physician, Hope helped prove the value of ausculation, showed how myocardial failure results in dyspnea, and generally did much to advance the field of cardiology. Hope's murmur is named for him. 694, 970 Ho Ping-ti, 357, 358 Hopkins, Donald, 478, 479 Horace (Horatius), 268, 269, 736 Horn, D., 106 Hornykiewicz, O., 917 House, William, 870 Howard-Jones, Norman, 644, 648 Howe, Joseph, 88 Howland, D., 813 Howland, J., 1051 Hrdlicka, A., 537 Hsien, prince of Chin State, 349 Hsueh Chi, 25 Hsu Ta-ch'un, 26 Hua Chhen, 350 Huan, 350 Hua To, 837

Huayna Capac (Inca ruler), 539 Hubert, St., 964

Huck, John Gardiner (J. G.) (1891- ): An Ameri can physician, Huck was the first (1923) to suggest a hereditary component to the phenomenon of sickle trait. 120, 574 Hudson, Ellis Herndon (1890- ): An American physician born in Japan, Hudson's 1946 publication on the origin of the treponematoses has been at the center of the debate over the origin of syphilis ever since. 1027, 1029, 1034, 1053, 1054, 1099 Hughes, Griffin, 1100

Hughes, Matthew Louis, 627 Hu Hou-hsuan, 348

Humboldt, Friedrich Heinrich Alexander von, 929 Hume, A., 86

Hunian ibn Is-haq al-Ibadi (Joannitius), 28, 901 Hunter, John (1728-93): A Scotsman, Hunter has been called one of the greatest surgeons of all time. He was instrumental in transforming surgery into an experimental science and is virtually the founder of surgical pathology. 92,102-3, 148, 759, 825, 896, 965 Hunter, John M., 928 Hurst, A. F., 804, 806 Hutchinson, Joseph, 1099 Hutt, M. S. R., 473 Hyllested, K, 885

Ibn Abi Usaybia, 29

Ibn al-Haytham, see Alhazen

Ibn al-Khatib, 46

Ibn Barmak, 13

Ibn Iyas, 339

Ibn Masawaih, 901

Ibn Maymun, see Maimonides

Ibn Nafis, 29

Ibn Rushd, see Averroes

Ibn Sallum, 30, 340

Ibn Sina, see Avicenna

Ichijo, emperor of Japan, 378

Imray, John, 930

Ingram, Vernon Martin (1924— ): Ingram was one of the pioneers in the study of genetic mutations and abnormal hemoglobin. His efforts include important work on sickle-cell hemoglobin and thalassemia diseases. 121, 1007 Ingrassia, Giovanni Filippo (of Palmero) (1510-80): Ingrassia was a fine osteologist but is best known for his work on epidemic diseases. He supplied the first description of what may have been epidemic scarlet fever and was the first to differentiate between that disease and chickenpox. 991, 1093 Ireland, W. W., 685 Isidore of Seville, 263 Itano, Harvey, 575 Itard, Jean Marie Gasparo, 869 I to, H., 842 Iversen, P., 653 Ives, Edward, 414, 1002

Jackman, W. A., 806 Jackson, E. B., 831 Jackson, James, Jr., 708,1078

Jackson, John Hughlings (1934-1911): An English neurologist, Jackson is known for his studies of aphasia and unilateral epilepsy with spasm (Jacksonian epilepsy). He was also instrumental in demonstrating the importance of ophthalmoscopy in the study of diseases of the nervous system. 71, 717 Jacoby, Abraham, 813 Jaggi, O. P., 414, 415 Jaksch, Rudolf von, 710 James I, king of England, 177, 998 James, Robert, 694 James, S. P., 414 James II, king of England, 579 Jamot, Eugène, 559 Janerich, Dwight, 684

Janet, Pierre Marie Félix (1859-1947): A French psychologist, Janet was a student of J. M. Charcot. He is known for initiating the movement to bring clinical and academic psychologists together to find one coherent set of concepts. He studied obsessions, amnesia, and neuroses, and was the first to describe psychasthenia. 76, 77, 580 Jannetta, Ann B., 358, 376, 378, 382, 383 Jansen, B. C. P., 610 Jarvis, Edward, 204 Jax, Karl, 264

Jayavarman VII, king of Cambodia, 435 Jayne, W. A., 414 Jehangir, emperor of Persia, 413 Jehovah, 86

Jenner, Edward (1749-1823): An English physician, Jen-ner's Inquiry into the Causes andEffects ofVariolae Vaccinae published in 1798 represents one of the greatest triumphs in the history of medicine. The work describes 23 successful vaccinations with cowpox that protected against smallpox. 3,16,154,414,459,1011,1012 Jenner, Sir William (1815—98): An English physician, Jenner was a professor of pathology and physician to Queen Victoria. Like others in the nineteenth century, he carefully distinguished typhoid fever from typhus (1849) and was one of the first to clearly describe emphysema. 968,1083 Jennings, Francis, 523 Jensen, Carl O., 103 Jerne, Niels Kaj, 133, 134, 136 Jin (Chin), duke of Korea, 54 Joannitius (Hunain ibn Is-haq al-Ibadi), 28, 901 Job, 836

John of Arderne, 902

John of Gaddesden (1280-1361): An English physician, John of Gaddesden was also ordained as a priest. He became the first Englishman appointed court physician to an English monarch (Edward II) and wrote the first printed medical book by an Englishman. 274, 873 Johns, T. R., 893 Johnson, C. D., 889 Johnson, Karl M., 818 Johnson, Samuel, 708, 760 Johnston, H. H., 557 Jonasson, M. R., 667 Jones, Alfred Lewis, 557 Jones, B. R., 899 Jones, J., 310 Jones, Kenneth, 154 Jones, T. Duckett, 972

Jordan, E. O. (1866-1936): An American bacteriologist, Jordan was an authority on public hea

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