Subject Index

a-a-a disease, 786

abattoir fever, see Q fever

Account of the Bilious, Remitting Fever by

Benjamin Rush (1789), 663 An Account of the Foxglove by William

Withering (1785), 695 acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), 2, 3, 6-7, 41, 46, 96, 185, 205, 298, 301, 366-7, 383-4, 452, 474-5, 490, 503, 530, 541, 547-51, 557, 589, 620, 699, 700, 711, 781, 783, 937, 938, 1052 and Candida albicans, 548 causative agent discovered, 547, 711 clinical manifestations and treatments,

548-9 definition, 547

distribution and incidence, 547-8 epidemiology and etiology, 547 first identified, 547 and hemophilia, 620 and histoplasmosis, 781, 783 history and geography, 549-50

452, 699 in the Americas

Latin America and the Caribbean,

503, 541 North, 530 in Asia Bast

China, 366-7; Japan, 383-4 South, 474-5 in Australia and Oceania, 490 immunology, 548 and Karposi's sarcoma, 547 and Pneumocystis pneumonia, 547, 937 and pneumonia, 938 and strongyloidiasis, 548 and toxoplasmosis, 548, 1052 and tuberculosis, 548 and typhoid fever, 1072 acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans

(ACA), see Lyme borreliosis acupuncture, 23, 24, 53, 58, 398, 401

acute anterior poliomyelitis, see poliomyelitis acute cor pulmonale, see heart-related diseases acute epiglottitis, see croup acute otitis media (AOM), see mastoiditis Adams-Stokes disease, 92 addiction, 170-76, 206, 548, 796 and acquired immune deficiency syndrome, 548 alcohol, see alcoholism "blue mass," 173 cannabis, 175, 176 and clonidine, 173 cocaine, 170, 171, 173, 174, 175 and departments of health, 206 as disease, 172 and hepatitis B, 796 heroin, 175 history of, 170-6

and hypodermic syringe, 171, 175 international efforts to control, 170—6

passim LSD, 170, 175 and methadone, 172, 173 morphine, 171, 172, 173, 175 opium, 170-1, 172, 173, 174, 175, 176 and patent medicine, 171 and scopalamine, 172 Shanghai Opium Commission and, 171 as sin, 172

tobacco, see tobaccosis Towns-Lambert treatment for, 173 Adulteration of Food Act (Great Britain), 202

Advisory Committee of Experts (on cigarette smoking) (U.S., 1962), 179

aflatoxin, 737

Africa, north, see Middle East and North

Africa, diseases of Africa, sub-Sahara, diseases of before 1860: African trypanosomiasis, 293, 449, 552-61; ainhum, 297, 561; amebic dysentery, 295, 451; arthritis, 297;

ascariasis, 295, 448; bacillary dysentery, 295; beriberi, 296; chickenpox, 296, 448, 449; cholera, 297, 448, 450; dengue, 293; dracunculiasis, 295, 448, 668; dysentery, 448; filariasis, 295, 450; gonorrhea, 297, 448, 449; hookworm disease, 295, 448, 450, 785, 787; kwashiorker, 295; leishmaniasis, 832-3; leprosy,

295, 296, 297, 448; loiasis, 295; malaria, 293, 296, 448, 450, 451; malaria, falciparum, 294, 299, 301, 302, 303, 448, 450; malaria, malariae, 294; malaria, vivax, 293, 294; marasmus, 295; measles, 296, 448, 449; night blindness, 297; onchocerciasis, 295, 297, 450; ophthalmia, 297; pellagra, 296, 297; pica, 297; pneumonia,

296, 448; protein-energy malnutrition, 295; rheumatism, 297; scabies, 297; schistosomiasis, 295, 448, 450; scurvy, 296; sickle-cell anemia, 294-5; sickle trait, 294-5; smallpox, 296, 448, 449, 450; syphilis, 296, 297, 448, 449; tapeworm, 295; trachoma, 448; trichuriasis, 295, 448; tuberculosis, 296, 448, 449; typhoid fever, 295; yaws, 295, 296, 297, 448, 1053-5 passim, 1099; yellow fever, 293, 295, 296, 448, 450, 1102-3

since 1860: acquired immune deficiency syndrome, 298,301,452,548, 549; African trypanosomiasis, 299,300,301,302,303,451, 452, 552-61; ainhum, 561; amebic dysentery, 569; black-water fever, 302; brucellosis, 303; cholera, 303,304; Congo-Crimean hemorrhagic fever,

699,701,819; dengue, 663; diarrhea, 298, 299; diphtheria, 303, 452; dracunculiasis, 299,302, 303,687,688; Ebola virus disease, 298,699-702,819; echinococcosis, 706; filariasis, 302; gonorrhea, 451; gout, 771; hepatitis, 299,303; hookworm disease, 299, 785,787; influenza, 303,451; Lassa fever, 298,594, 595,596,597,699, 701,817-20; leishmaniasis, 302,303, 832-3; leprosy, 302,452; lupus erythematosus, 851; malaria, 298,299,301,302,303,452, 857-62; malaria, falciparum, 303,857-62 passim; Marburg virus disease, 298,817,862-4 passim; measles, 298,301,303, 452; meningitis, cerebrospinal, 299,303,450,451,452,878, 879; onchocerciasis, 302,452, 895-7 passim; ophthalmia, 904-5; pellagra, 918; pica, 928; plague, 303,451; pneumonia, 301,303,941; poliomyelitis, 303,452,948,949; protein-energy malnutrition, 304,950, 954; rabies, 962,966; relapsing fever, 302, 968,969; Rift-Valley fever, 594,699,819; schistosomiasis, 299, 302,303, 452,993-7 passim; sexually transmitted diseases, 300,303, 451; sickle-cell anemia, 574, 1007-8; smallpox, 301,303, 451,452; tetanus, 303; tetanus, neonatal, 298,1047; tropical ulcer, 302; tuberculosis, 303,451, 1066; typhoid fever, 299,303, 1075; undulant fever, 303; whooping cough, 303; yaws, 299,301,302,452,1097; yellow fever, 298,302,1101-6 passim "African lethargy" (African trypanosomiasis), 555 African swine fever, 587 African trypanosomiasis, 101, 293, 299, 300, 301, 302, 303, 449, 451, 452, 552-61, 711, 817, 996 and African settlement patterns, 293,

and African strategies against, 557-8 causative agents identified, 555-6, 711 clinical manifestations and pathology,

and colonial medicine, 5, 556-9, 996 control of, 301, 556-60 definition, 552

distribution and incidence, 554-5 and encephalitis, 711 epidemiology and etiology, 552-4 gambiense, 552-60 passim history and geography, 555-60 immunology, 555 rhodesiense, 552-60 vaccination, 555 Agchylostoma, see hookworm disease

AIDS, see acquired immune deficiency syndrome ainhum, 297, 540, 561 Airs, Waters, and Places (in the Hippo-

cratic corpus), 11, 47 Albert Einstein University, see universities

Alcoholics Anonymous, 173 alcoholism, 72, 74, 154, 175, 206, 737, 918, 919 maternal, 154 and mental illness, 72, 74 and pellagra, 918, 919 "Aleppo boil" (leishmaniasis), 456, 833 alimentary toxic aleukia, 737 alkali poisoning (milk sickness), 880 alkaptonuria, 118-19, 154 All-India and Yunani Tibb Conference, 32 All-Indian Ayurvedic Congress, 32 allotriophagia (pica), 927 al-Mujiz by Ibn Nafis (thirteenth century), 29

Alzheimer's disease (see also mental illness), 2, 3, 6, 123, 124, 561-8, 712,917

clinical manifestations and diagnosis,

562-3 definition, 561-2 and Down syndrome, 564 epidemiology and etiology, 563-4 history, 565-6 treatment, 564-5 Alzheimer's Disease and Associated

Disorders — An International Journal, 566 Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association, 565 Amalgamated Clothing Workers, 191 amebiasis, see amebic dysentery amebic dysentery (see also bacillary dysentery; diarrheal diseases; dysentery), 6, 270, 295, 402, 412, 442, 451, 458, 467-8, 491, 498, 520, 568-71, 605, 696 causative agent discovered, 570 definition, 568, 696 diagnosis, clinical manifestations, and pathology, 569-70 differentiated from bacillary dysentery, 605

distribution and incidence, 569 epidemiology, 569 etiology, 568-9 history and geography, 570-1 in Africa, sub-Sahara, before 1860, 295,451

in the Americas, pre-Columbian, 520 in Asia East: Korea, modern, 402 South ancient, 412; modern, 467-8 Southeast: modern, 442 in Australia and Oceania, 491 in Europe: Middle Ages, 270 in Middle East and North Africa, 458 incubation period, 570 prevention, 570 amenorrhea, 158, 577

American Association for Labor Legislation, 188

American Association of Medical Superintendents of Asylums for the Insane, 66 American Cancer Society, 184 American Council on Science and Health, 185

American Dermatological Association, 776

American Diabetes Association, 671 American Heart Association, 95 "American Killer," see hookworm disease American Legion, Pennsylvania Department, 829

American Medical Association (AMA), 66, 164-70 passim, 172 Committee on Quackery, 169 American Pediatric Society, 153, 813 American Psychiatric Association, 66, 79, 89

American Public Health Association, 210

Industrial Hygiene section, 189 American Red Cross, 923

Medical Research Committee, 1053 American Rheumatism Association, 599, 600

American spotted fever (Rocky Mountain spotted fever), 985 American Thoracic Society, 706 American trypanosomiasis, see Chagas' disease

American Veterans Administration, 184 Americas, diseases of pre-Columbian: amebic dysentery, 520; anemia, 313, 576; anthrax, 520; arthritis, 309-10, 530, 537, 538; ascariasis, 603; botulism, 520; Carriön's disease, 4, 537-8, 631-5 passim; Chagas' disease, 4, 98, 538, 636-8 passim; dental diseases, 311; diarrheal diseases, 538; encephalitis, 4, 521; enterobiasis, 712; goiter, 538; hepatitis, 498, 521; hookworm disease, 538, 787; leishmaniasis, 538, 832-3 passim; osteoarthritis, 309, 314, 907; pemphigus foliaceus, 538; pinta, 498, 521, 522, 537, 932-3, 1053-5 passim; poliomyelitis, 521; rabies, 966; relapsing fever, 520; rheumatoid arthritis, 309, 310, 311, 537; rickets, 978; salmonella organisms, 520; syphilis, nonvenereal, 310, 511; syphilis, venereal, 5, 310-11, 498, 515, 521, 522, 537,1029,1053-5 passim; tapeworm, 520, 1036; trauma, 308-9; trichuriasis, 538; tuberculosis, 4, 309, 311, 313, 314, 315, 497, 521, 537, 538, 539, 1062; tularemia, 520; typhus, 538; yaws, 310, 521, 522, 537 1492-1700: anthrax, 323, 324, 325;

bronchitis, 539; chickenpox, 323-4, 499, 523; diarrheal dis

Americas, diseases of (cont.)

eases, 323; diphtheria, 323,

499, 523; dracunculiasis, 500, 526, 687; dysentery, 526; ergotism, 719; filariasis, 450,

500, 727; hookworm disease, 500, 787; influenza, 323, 324, 498-9, 523; lead poisoning, 824-5; leishmaniasis, 832-3; leprosy, 500; maculo, 540; malaria, 322, 324, 325, 450, 499, 500, 523, 524, 526, 860; measles, 323, 324, 499, 523, 525, 539, 874; mumps, 324; onchocerciasis, 450, 500, 895; pinta, 932-3; plague, 324, 325, 499, 523, 525-6; pneumoconiosis, 539; pneumonia, 323, 324, 539; puerperal fever, 956; rabies, 966; rubella,

323, 324; scarlet fever, 324, 499, 523; schistosomiasis, 450, 526; silicosis, 539; smallpox, 201, 320, 322, 323, 324, 450, 499, 500, 523-5, 526, 539, 1009, 1010; syphilis, 322; tetanus, 50; tetanus, neonatal, 500; trachoma, 523; tuberculosis, 322, 523, 539; typhoid, 323, 499, 523, 1075; typhus, 323,

324, 325, 499, 523, 1082; whooping cough, 324, 499, 523; yaws, 450, 500, 501, 526, 1096, 1099; yellow fever, 323, 325, 450, 499, 500, 526, 540, 541, 1101-6 passim since 1700, Latin America and the Caribbean: acquired immune deficiency syndrome, 503,541, 548, 550; ainhum, 540, 561; amebic dysentery, 569; anthrax, 582; Argentine hemorrhage fever, 595,596, 597-8; beriberi, 501,

541, 607, 608, 609; Bolivian hemorrhage fever, 595, 596, 597, 598,817; cancer, see cancer; Carriôn's disease, 631-5; Chagas' disease, 4, 98, 538, 541,

542, 636-8; chickenpox, 541; cholera, 323,415,420,421, 501-2, 523, 524,527, 528, 541, 542,647; dengue, 503, 540, 541-2, 661, 663; diarrheal diseases, 320,330,541; diphtheria, 541; dracunculiasis, 500, 526,687; dropsy, 501; dysentery, 331,502, 530,540; filariasis, 501, 503,540, 727; goiter, 538, 752; gonorrhea, 758; heart-related diseases, see heart-related diseases; hepatitis, 542; histoplasmosis, 779, 782; hookworm disease, 205, 501,502, 785, 787; hypertension, 332, 501,532; influenza, 530,541,809; lead poisoning, 501,825; leishmaniasis, 832-3 passim; leprosy, 500, 501, 529,

584, 834; lupus erythematosus, 850, 851; maculo, 540; malaria, 320, 329,330,502,503,526,

539-40,541,851-62 passim; malaria, falciparum, 500,503; measles, 331,539, 540,541, 874; meningitis, 320,331; mental illness, 532; mycetoma, 734; occupational diseases, 187-92 passim; onchocerciasis, 500,

540-1, 895; ophthalmia, 540, 904-5; pellagra, 501,541,921; pica, 929,930; plague, 526,541, 542, 631; pneumonia, 330; pneumonia-diarrhea complex, 329,330; protein-energy malnutrition, 329,501,503,950, 952, 954; Q fever, 958-61 passim; rabies, 966; relapsing fever, 969; Rocky Mountain spotted fever, 982-6 passim; scarlet fever, 541,992; schistosomiasis, 503, 540,541,993-7 passim; scurvy, 541; smallpox, 500,502, 540,1010-13 passim; syphilis, 541; tetanus, 500-1, 502; tetanus, neonatal, 500,503,1048; toxoplasmosis, 1052; trichuriasis, 1055; tuberculosis, 329, 502, 541,1063,1064,1066; typhoid, 501, 502, 542,1071, 1072,1073,1076; typhus, 501, 541,1081,1082,1084; whooping cough, 541; yaws, 501,503, 541,1096-7,1099; yellow fever, 201,330,499, 500,501, 502, 503, 540,541-2,1101-6 passim since 1700, North America: acquired immune deficiency syndrome, 530, 547-50 passim; Alzheimer's disease, 562-6 passim; anorexia nervosa, 578, 579-80; botulism, 624; cancer, see cancer; cholera, 527, 528, 646-9 passim; dengue, 663; diphtheria, 682-3; dysentery, 331, 569; encephalitis lethargica, 710-12; ergotism, 719; filariasis, 724; goiter, 753-4; gonorrhea, 756-63 passim; gout, 767-9 passim; heart-related diseases, see heart-related diseases; herpes simplex, 776—8 passim; histoplasmosis, 779, 782; hookworm disease, 205, 785, 787; hypertension, 332, 532; influenza, 95, 530, 809, 810, 811; lead poisoning, 825, 826; Legionnaires disease, 827-31; lupus erythematosus, 851; Lyme borreliosis, 852-4 passim; malaria, 331, 332, 525, 526-7, 529, 856-62 passim, 874; measles, 320, 874; meningitis, 877, 878; mental illness, 532; milk sickness, 880-3; pellagra, 501, 530, 541;

6, 531, 631; pneumonia, 95, 530, 940-1; pneumonia-diarrhea complex, 329, 332; poliomyelitis, 944-5, 947-8, 949; Q fever, 958, 960; relapsing fever, 969; Rocky Mountain spotted fever, 982-6 passim; rubella, 988; scarlet fever, 525, 991-2; smallpox, 201, 331, 524-5, 526, 1010-13 passim; tapeworm, 1036; tetanus, neonatal, 1047; toxoplasmosis, 1052; trichuriasis, 1055, 1058; tuberculosis, 331, 332, 528-9, 530, 1063, 1064; tularemia, 1068-70; typhoid, 1071, 1072, 1075, 1076; typhomalarial fever, 1077-80; typhus, 1082; varicella zoster, 1092; whooping cough, 303; yellow fever, 204, 205, 331, 526, 1101-6 passim amylophagia (pica), 927 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ATL), 917 Anatomiepathologique du corps humain by Jean Cruveilhier (1829-42), 585

Anatomy of Melancholy by Robert Burton (1621), 62 anchylostomum, see hookworm disease Ancient Practice School (Japan), 58 Ancylostoma duodenale, see hookworm disease ancylostomiasis, see hookworm disease anemia (see also chlorosis; hookworm disease; leukemia), 144, 248, 256-

7, 258, 271, 313, 322, 405, 428, 460-1, 473, 492, 571-6, 631-5 passim, 639-41, 787, 820, 841, 928, 930, 931, 1036

and ascariasis, 571

and Carri6n's disease, 631—5 passim and chlorosis, see chlorosis definition, 571

and diarrhea, 573

and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, see favism; glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency history and geography, 572-6 in Africa, sub-Sahara, 574-5 in the Americas, pre-Columbian, 313,

575-6 in Asia South, modern, 473 Southeast, 428 in Australia and Oceania, 492 in Europe pre-Roman world, 248, 256-7, 258 antiquity, 572-3 Middle Ages, 271 1700-1900, 572 in Middle East and North Africa, 460, 461, 572, 576 and hookworm, see hookworm disease hypochromic, 640 iatrogenic, 571

and inflammatory bowel disease, see inflammatory bowel disease and iron deficiency, 428, 572-3, 576,

639-41, 928, 930, 931 and lead poisoning, 571, 820 pernicious, 572 and pica, 928, 930, 931 and scarlet fever, 991 and sickle-cell disorders, see sickle-cell anemia; sickle trait and skeletal changes, 575-6 and tapeworm, 1036 and thalassemia, see thalassemia and trichuriasis, 571 Anemia Commission of Puerto Rico, 787 angina maligna, 266

angina pectoris, see heart-related diseases angiosclerosis, see hypertension ankylosing spondylitis, 254, 601 ankylostomaVA nkylostoma, see hookworm disease Annates (school), 376 Annates d'Hygiene Publique et Médecine

Légale (1829- ), 203 Annuaire Internationale de Statistique

(1916-17, 1919-21), 209 Annual Medical Report of the Gold Coast, 954

Annual Summary, Morbidity and Mortality Reports by the United States Public Health Service (1983), 774 anorexia nervosa, 145, 283, 577-82, 640 clinical manifestations and pathology, 577

definition, 577

distribution and incidence, 577-8 etiology and epidemiology, 578-9 history and geography, 283, 579-81 anthracosis, see occupational diseases anthrax, 4,19,270,279,323,324,325,448, 457,520,582-4,718,760,1075 causative agent discovered, 19, 584,

760, 1075 clinical manifestations and pathology, 583

confused with ergotism, 718 definition, 582

distribution and incidence, 582-3 history and geography, 583-4 in Africa, sub-Sahara, modern, 582 in the Americas pre-Columbian, 520 1492-1700, 323, 324, 325 since 1700, 582 in Asia, East: China, modern, 582 in Europe Middle Ages, 270, 277, 279 twentieth century, 582-3 in Middle East and North Africa, 457 ancient, 583 modern, 582 immunology, 583 industrial type, 582 non-industrial type, 582 vaccination, 584 Anthrax Prevention Act (Great Britain, 1919), 582, 584

anthropometric history, see stature and health Antibody Workshop, 137 antihemophilic factor (factor VIII), see bleeding disorders antizeists, 921 Antonine plagues, 37 Aperçu de la Demographie des Divers

Pays du Monde, 209 "aphthae" (thrush), see fungus infections (mycoses)

"apoplectic attack," see apoplexy; stroke apoplectic ictus, see apoplexy; stroke apoplexy (see also stroke), 263-4, 353, 584-7 history, 584-5 arboviruses (see also dengue; Japanese B encephalitis; yellow fever), 587-91, 594 clinical manifestations, 594 control, 594 definition, 587 epidemiology, 589-91 etiology, 587-9 morphology, 589 treatment, 594 arenaviruses (see also Lassa fever), 595-8 clinical features, diagnosis, treatment, and control, 597-8 definition, 595 epidemiology, 596-7 history, 595-6 morphology, 595 Argentine hemorrhagic fever (Junin), 595, 596, 597-8, 817 vaccination, 598 "Armenian sore" (syphilis), 339 Army Medical College at Netley (United

Kingdom), 627, 1079 arteriosclerosis, and gangrene, 743-4 The Art of Farming (Korea, 1430), 392 arthritis deformans, see arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, rheumatoid (see also gout; Lyme borreliosis; osteoarthritis; rheumatic fever/rheumatic heart disease), 118, 252-4, 258, 283, 297, 309-10, 311, 380, 383, 384, 399, 483, 530, 537, 538, 599-602, 742-4 clinical manifestations and diagnosis, 600

definition, 599

distribution and incidence, 599-600 epidemiology and etiology, 600 and gangrene, 742-3 history and geography, 600-2

in Africa, sub-Sahara, before 1860, 297

in the Americas, pre-Columbian,

309-10, 530, 537, 538 in Asia, East: Japan, premodern, 380, 383, 384

in Australia and Oceania, ancient,

483 in Europe pre-Roman world, 252-4, 258 early modern, 283

as a new world disease, 310, 311, 602 treatment, 600 articulare chronique, see arthritis, rheumatoid

Art of Lovemaking by Ovid (first century), 926

asbestosis (white lung), see occupational diseases ascariasis, 7, 252, 295, 351, 365, 380, 403, 442, 448, 457, 491, 571, 603, 938, 1058 and anemia, 571 clinical manifestations, 603 definition, 603

distribution and incidence, 603 history and geography in Africa, sub-Sahara, before 1860, 7,

295, 448 in Asia East

China: ancient, 351; modern, 365 Japan, premodern, 380 Korea, modern, 403 Southeast, modern, 442 in Australia and Oceania, 491 in Europe, pre-Roman world, 252 in Middle East and North Africa, 457 and pneumonia, 938 ascites, see dropsy aseptic meningitis, see meningitis Asia, East, diseases of China diseases of antiquity: apoplexy, 353; ascariasis, 351, 603; beriberi, 346, 347, 348, 606; bronchitis, 351; cancer, 351; catarrh, 347,

348, 350; cholera, 351; cirrhosis, 351, 353; diabetes, 353; diphtheria, 353; dysentery, 348; encephalitis, 348; en-terobius infection, 351; goiter,

349, 350, 750, 752, 754; heart-related diseases, 349, 353; Hodgkins disease, 349; influenza, 348; leprosy, 347, 838; malaria, 347-8, 861; measles, 873; meningitis, 348; osteomalacia, 347, 348, 349; pneumonia, 348, 351, 353; rabies,

350, 964; relapsing fever, 353; rickets, 347, 348, 349, 978; salmonella, 348; scabies, 346; scarlet fever, 348; schistosomiasis, 346, 350, 353; smallpox, 390, 478-9, 1009, 1010; tapeworm, 1035; tetanus, 347; trachoma, 350; tuberculosis, 348, 349,

premodern period: beriberi, 355, 358; cholera, 354, 356, 357; dengue, 355; diphtheria, 354, 355, 356; dysentery, 355, 356, 357, 358; enteritis, 356; gonorrhea, 356; influenza, 355; leprosy, 359-60; malaria, 355, 356, 358, 359; meningitis, 355; plague, 355, 357, 358; pneumonia, 355,

Asia, East, diseases of (conf.)

356; scarlet fever, 354, 356; schistosomiasis, 355; smallpox, 354, 355, 359, 360, 479, 480, 481, 1010; syphilis, 355, 356; tuberculosis, 355, 358, 1063; typhoid fever, 354, 355; typhus, 355; typhus, murine, 1086 modern period: acquired immune deficiency syndrome, 366-7; amebic dysentery, 569; anthrax, 582; ascariasis, 365; cancer, 363, 364, 370-1; cholera, 356, 357, 367, 647; chronic ob-structure lung disease (COLD), 370; clonorchiasis, 654; condyloma, 369; cor pulmonale, 370; dengue, 367; diphtheria, 356; dysentery, 356, 357; entiritis, 356; epidemic hemorrhagic fever, 367; filariasis, 365, 728; fluorine poisoning, 371; goiter, 371-2; gonorrhea, 356, 369; heart-related disease, 363, 364, 365, 370; hepatitis, 369-70; hookworm disease, 365, 785; hypertension, 370; influenza, 367; Japanese B encephalitis, 367; Kaschin-Beck disease, 372; Keshan disease, 372; leishmaniasis, 365; leprosy, 67-8; malaria, 356, 365-6; measles, 368; meningitis, 878; occupational diseases, 371; plague, 368; pneumonia, 356; poliomyelitis, 368; relapsing fever, 969; rheumatic heart disease, 370; rickets, 978; scarlet fever, 356; schistosomiasis, 366, 993-7 passim; sexually transmitted diseases, 369; smallpox, 368; stroke, 363, 370; syphilis, 356, 369; tetanus, neonatal, 368; trachoma, 368-9; tuberculosis, 369; typhoid, 369; typhus, murine, 1086

Japan diseases of antiquity: beriberi, 374,

606; diabetes mellitus, 375; dysentery, 374; epilepsy, 375; erysipelas, 375; gonorrhea, 375; influenza, 375; leprosy, 375; malaria, 374; measles, 375; pinworms, 374; plague, 373, 375; rheumatoid arthritis, 374; roundworms, 374; scabies, 375; schizophrenia, 375; scrofula, 375; smallpox, 373, 375, 390, 479; soft chancre, 375; syphilis, 375; tapeworm, 374; tuberculosis, 374 premodern period: ascariasis, 380; asthma, 380, 382, 384; beriberi, 379, 382, 384; bronchitis, 380, 382; cancer, 380, 384; chickenpox, 382, 383, 384; cholera, 380, 382, 384; cirrhosis, 382; clonorchiasis, 654; diabe tes mellitus, 379, 382, 384; diphtheria, 380; dropsy, 380,

382, 384; dysentery, 377, 379, 380, 382, 383, 384; elephantiasis, 380; epilepsy, 380; erysipelas, 380; heart-related diseases, 379; hepatitis, 380, 382, 384; hookworm disease, 380; influenza, 377, 379, 382, 383, 384; leprosy, 380, 382,383, 384; malaria, 380, 382, 384; measles, 377, 379, 382, 383, 384; meningitis, 380; mental illness, 379; mumps, 377, 379, 384; nephritis, 380; osteomyelitis, 380; plague, 377-8, 383; pneumonia, 380, 384; rheumatoid arthritis, 380, 384; scabies, 380; smallpox, 376, 377, 378-9, 380, 381, 382, 383, 384, 480, 730, 1009; syphilis,

383, 384; tapeworm, 380; tuberculosis, 379, 382, 384,1063; typhoid, 1072; typhus, 384, 388; typhus, murine, 1086,1087; typhus, scrub, 1086-8 passim early modern and modern periods: acquired immune deficiency syndrome, 383—4; anorexia nervosa, 578; beriberi, 388, 610, 737; botulism, 624; chickenpox, 387; cholera, 387, 647; cholera infantum, 388; diarrheal diseases, 387; diphtheria, 388; dysentery, 387; gonorrhea, 388; gout, 770; influenza, 387; Japanese B encephalitis, 811-13 passim; malaria, 388; measles, 386-7; plague, 388; scarlet fever, 388; schistosomiasis, 994-5; smallpox, 386,

387, 479, 480, 730, 1009; syphilis, 388; trachoma, 388; tuberculosis, 388, 1063; typhoid,

388, 1072; typhus, 388; typhus, murine, 1086, 1087; typhus, scrub, 388, 1086-8 passim

Korea diseases of antiquity: asthma, 391; beriberi, 391, 392; diabetes mellitus, 392; diarrheal diseases, 391; diphtheria, 391; dysentery, 391; epilepsy, 392; erysipelas, 391; gonorrhea, 391, 392; leprosy, 391; malaria, 391; measles, 391; mental illness, 392; paragonimiasis, 391; pneumonia, 391; rabies, 392; scabies, 391; smallpox, 390-1, 479; stroke, 392; tetanus, 392; tuberculosis, 391; typhoid fever, 391

premodern period: arthritis, 399;

asthma, 396; beriberi, 398; cancer, 397, 399; chancroid, 396; chickenpox, 394; children's diseases, 399; cirrhosis, 397; convulsions, 399; diabetes mellitus, 397-8; diphtheria, 395, 399; dysentery, 394-5, 399; eclampsia, 399; emphysema, 396; epilepsy, 399; erysipelas, 398; gallstones, 397; gangrene, 398; gonorrhea, 396,397, 399; heart-related diseases, 396; influenza, 393; jaundice, 397; leprosy, 398; leptospirosis, 395; malaria, 399; measles, 394; meningitis, 393, 395; mental illness, 399; osteomalacia, 400; osteomyelitis, 399-400; paragonimiasis, 397; pneumonia, 396; rabies, 399; relapsing fever, 393; rickets, 400; roundworms, 397; rubella, 394; scabies, 398; scarlet fever, 394; smallpox, 393-4, 479; stroke, 398; syphilis, 395-6; tetanus, 399; trachoma, 399; tuberculosis, 396, 399; typhoid, 393; typhus, 393; whooping cough, 395; women's diseases, 399 modern period: amebic dysentery, 402; anemia, 405, ascariasis, 403; asthma, 400; bacillary dysentery, 402, 407; beriberi, 405; cholera, 400, 401, 402, 407, 647; clonorchiasis, 465; dengue, 404; diphtheria, 401, 406, 407; dysentery, 401, 402; encephalitis, 406, 407; enterobiasis, 403; epilepsy, 400; filariasis, 404; gangrene, 401; gonorrhea, 405, 407; heart-related diseases, 400; hookworm disease, 403; influenza, 407; leprosy, 401, 405-6, 407; leptospirosis, 406; liver fluke, 403; malaria, 400, 401, 404, 407; measles, 404, 405; meningitis, 405, 406, 407; mumps, 406; ophthalmia, 405; osteomalacia, 405; paragonimiasis, 403; pellagra, 405; plague, 404-5; pneumonia, 403, 407; poliomyelitis, 406; rabies, 406-7; relapsing fever, 405, 407, 969; scabies, 401, 406; scarlet fever, 406; scurvy, 405; sexually transmitted diseases, 401, 405; smallpox, 400, 403-4, 405, 407; syphilis, 401, 405, 406, 407; tetanus, neonatal, 407; trachoma, 406; trench fever, 405; trichuriasis, 403; tuberculosis, 401, 403; typhoid fever, 401, 403, 407; typhus, 401, 405, 407, 1083; typhus, scrub, 405, 1086-8 passim; whooping cough, 395, 401, 406 Asia, South, diseases of antiquity: amebic dysentery, 412; cancer, 410, 411, 412; cholera, 412, 414, 642, 644; cirrhosis, 412; conjunctivitis, 411; diabetes mellitus, 412; diphtheria, 410; dysentery, 412; dyspepsia, 412; filariasis, 412; goiter, 411; heart-related diseases, 411; leishmaniasis, 832; leprosy, 410; malaria, 410, 476-8; osteomyelitis, 410; peridon-titis, 411; pica, 930; pneumonia, 412; poliomyelitis, 949; puerperal fever, 410; rabies, 964; scabies, 410; scurvy, 411; smallpox, 1010; tapeworm, 1035; tetanus, 411; trachoma, 411; tuberculosis, 412, 1062-3; typhoid fever, 410, 1073, 1074; xerophthalmia, 411 premodern period: beriberi, 609; cholera, 334, 414-15, 416; diarrheal diseases, 414; dropsy, 414; dysentery, 334, 417; epilepsy, 414; erysipelas, 414; filariasis, 414; gonorrhea, 414; heart-related diseases, 414; hepatitis, 417; influenza, 417; leishmaniasis, 417, 832; leprosy, 414; malaria, 416-17; measles, 414; plague, 415-16; scrofula, 414; sexually transmitted diseases, 417; smallpox, 414; tuberculosis, 417; typhoid, 417; whooping cough, 414 modern period: acquired immune deficiency syndrome, 474-5; amebic dysentery, 467-8, 569, 570; anemia, 473; ascariasis, 603; bacillary dysentery, 467-8; beriberi, 473, 607, 608, 610; cancer, 474; cholera, 414-15, 418, 419, 420-2, 423, 464, 465, 642, 643, 644-8 passim; diarrheal diseases, 422, 465, 467; diphtheria, 465, 467; dysentery, 422, 424; filariasis, 472-3, 724, 725; gastroenteritis, 422, 424; goiter, 473, 474; hepatitis, 424, 464; hookworm disease, 785; influenza, 418, 419, 424; lathyrism, 473; leishmaniasis, 832-3; leprosy, 424, 470-2, 834; malaria, 418, 419-20, 421, 422, 423-4, 465, 467, 468-70; measles, 465; mycetoma, 734; pica, 930; plague, 418, 419, 422, 423-4, 465; protein-energy malnutrition, 464, 473, 950, 954; pneumonia, 465; relapsing fever, 968; rickets, 473; smallpox, 418, 419-20, 421, 422, 423, 465; tetanus, neonatal, 424, 465; tuberculosis, 424, 465; typhoid fever, 422, 424, 464, 465, 1073; typhus, 1081, 1084; typhus, murine, 1086, 1087; typhus, scrub, 1086-8 passim; whooping cough, 424, 465; xerophthalmia, 473; yaws, 1097

Asia, Southeast, diseases of antiquity and premodern period:

amebic dysentery, 569; anemia, 428; beriberi, 427, 433; cancer, 437; cholera, 427, 428, 432, 434, 436; convulsions, 430; dengue, 433; diarrheal diseases, 429; dysentery, 427, 428; epilepsy, 430; filariasis, 727; goiter, 427; hookworm disease, 434; influenza, 433; leprosy, 427, 430, 432; malaria, 426, 427, 428, 433, 434; osteoarthritis, 428; osteomyelitis, 428; peridontal disease, 428; plague, 427, 432, 434; rickets, 433; smallpox,

427, 432, 434-5; syphilis, 434; tetanus, neonatal, 434; trachoma, 427; tuberculosis, 427,

428, 433, 437; typhoid fever, 427, 1073; typhus, 427; yaws, 434

modern period: amebic dysentery, 442;

ascariasis, 442; bacillary dysentery, 442; beriberi, 442-3, 607, 608, 610; cancer, 443; cholera,

441, 442; cirrhosis, 443; Clonorchiasis, 654; dengue,

442, 663; dysentery, 442; enterobiasis, 442; fasciolopsiasis, 442; filariasis, 442; giardiasis, 442; heart-related diseases, 442, 443; hemorrhagic fever, 442; hepatitis, 442; histoplasmosis, 779; hookworm disease, 442, 785; Japanese B encephalitis, 442; leprosy, 442; malaria, 440, 441, 442; paragonimiasis, 442; plague, 441, 442; pneumonia, 443; protein-energy malnutrition, 442, 950, 954; rabies, 442; relapsing fever, 968; salmonellosis, 442; schistosomiasis, 994; smallpox, 441, 442; strongyloidiasis, 442; trichuriasis, 442; tuberculosis, 443; typhoid fever, 442, 1073; typhus, 442; typhus, murine, 1086, 1087; typhus, scrub, 1086-8 passim; yaws, 442, 1097

Asian sudden unexplained death syndrome, see sudden unexplained death syndrome Asiatic cholera, see cholera aspergillosis, see fungus infections (mycoses)

"aspiration pneumonia," see pneumonia aspiritudo (trachoma), 901 Association of American Physicians, 573 asthma, 64, 264, 380, 382, 384, 391, 396, 403

astrological medicine, 28 athlete's foot (tenia pedis), see fungus infections (mycoses) Augustinian Brotherhood, 12, 14 Australia and Oceania, diseases of: ac quired immune deficiency syndrome, 490, 547, 548; amebic dysentery, 491, anemia, 492; arthritis, 483; ascariasis, 491; bacillary dysentery, 491; cancer, 484; chickenpox, 489; cholera, 491; dengue, 486, 661, 663; diabetes, 492; diarrheal diseases, 484, 491; diphtheria, 487; echinococcosis, 706; encephalitis lethargica, 710—12; enteritis neccroticans, 491; filariasis, 483, 485-6, 493, 725, 727, 728; gastroenteritis, 490; goiter, 492; gonorrhea, 490; gout, 770-1 passim; heart-related disease, 484, 493; hepatitis, 489-90; hookworm disease, 491, 785; hypertension, 493; influenza, 809-11 passim; kuru, 493; leprosy, 488, 839; leptospirosis, 492; lupus erythematosus, 851; Lyme borreliosis, 852; malaria, 483, 484, 485, 493; measles, 488, 515, 874; mumps, 489; plague, 492, 631; pneumonia, 484, 487; poliomyelitis, 490, 945, 948; Q fever, 958-61 passim; Queensland tick-typhus fever, 985; rabies, 966; rheumatism, 483; rubella, 489; scarlet fever, 489, 992; schistosomiasis, 994; scrofula, 488; smallpox, 489, 1010; streptococcal diseases, 487; syphilis, 490; tetanus, 491; trench fever, 1053; tuberculosis, 487-8; typhoid fever, 491, 1072; typhus, murine, 1086; typhus, scrub, 1086—8 passim; whooping cough, 487; yaws, 483, 489, 490, 1097, 1098 Australian Committee on Maternal Mortality of 1917, 217 Australian National University, see universities autumnal fever, 1078 avortement epizootique, see brucellosis Ayurvedic medicine, see medicine and medical history; Vedic religious tradition and medical treatises bacillary dysentery (see also amebic dysentery; diarrheal diseases; dysentery), 295, 402, 407, 442, 458, 467-8, 491, 569, 570, 604-6, 679, 696 causative agent discovered, 606 control and treatment, 605 definition, 604, 696

diagnosis, clinical manifestations, and pathology, 605 distribution and incidence, 604-5 epidemiology and etiology, 604 history and geography, 605-6 in Africa, sub-Sahara, before 1860, 295

bacillary dysentery (cont.)

in Asia, East: Korea, modern, 402, 407

South, modern, 467-8 Southeast, modern, 442 in Australia and Oceania, 491 in Middle East and North Africa, 458 incubation period, 570, 605 prevention and treatment, 605 bacillus anthracisis, see anthrax bacterial endocarditis, see streptococcal diseases bacteridie, see anthrax "Baghdad boil" (leishmaniasis), 456 Bakers and Confectioners Union, 191 "Balkan grippe" (Q fever), 957 "Balkan influenza" (Q fever), 957 Bangungut, 1021 Bannwarth's syndrome, 854 "Barbados distemper" (yellow fever), 1100 "Barbados leg" (filariasis), 500 Barlow's disease (infantile scurvy), 1005 bartonelliasis, see Carribn's disease bartonellosis, see Carridn's disease Bauerwetzel (mumps), 888 Bayer Company, 175 Bayer Laboratories, 996 bejel (nonvenereal syphilis), 1033, 1034 Belleville Dispensary (Paris), 152 Bellevue Hospital (New York), 971, 973 Bellevue Stratford Hotel (Philadelphia), 829

Bell Laboratories, 611 Benedictine Brotherhood, 12, 194 benign tertian malaria, see malaria beriberi, 6,142-3,153,296,346,347,348, 355,358,374,379,382,384, 388,391,392,398,405,427, 433,442-3,473,501,541,606-12,689,690,691,737,1005 and alcoholism, 608 causes discovered, 610-1 clinical manifestations and pathology,

608-9 definition, 606

distribution and incidence, 608 epidemiology and etiology, 6, 142—3,

153, 606-7 history and geography, 142-3, 609-11 in Africa, sub-Sahara, before 1860, 296

in the Americas, since 1700: Latin America and the Caribbean, 501, 541, 607-8, 609 in Asia East

China: ancient, 346, 347, 348;

premodern, 355, 358 Japan: ancient, 374; early modern, 388, 609, 737; modern, 737 Korea: ancient, 391, 392; premodern, 398; modern Korea, 405 South premodern, 609; modern, 473, 608, 610 Southeast ancient and premodern, 427, 433; modern, 442-3, 608, 610

prevention, 611 and rice, 142, 607 Biblical and Talmudic literature and medicine, 46, 86, 583, 622, 688, 692, 759, 776, 838, 964, 1019, 1063, 1090, 1099 the Bicetre Hospital (Paris), 717 bicha, see yellow fever bicho (maculo), 540 "big belly" (schistosomiasis), 992 Bilharzia, see schistosomiasis bilharziasis, see schistosomiosis "Bills of Mortality" (Great Britain), 321 "Bills of Mortality" (London, 1532), 209 bisoochtau (cholera), 643 Black Death (see also plague), 7, 39, 176, 281-2, 357, 380, 423,612-15 attempts at control and prevention,

614-15 definition, 612

history and geography, 612-13 and influenza, 612 and smallpox, 612 transmission and mortality, 613-14 "black fever," see leishmaniasis black lung disease, see occupational diseases

"black measles" (Rocky Mountain spotted fever), 984 Black Plague, see Black Death; plague black tongue (pellagra), 922, 923 black vomit, see schistosomiasis; yellow fever blackwater fever, see malaria bladder stones, see urolithiasis "blains," 1099 blastomycosis, 311 bleeding disorders, 6, 117, 618-23 and AIDS, see acquired immune deficiency syndrome Christmas disease, 620 hemophilia, history of, 622—3 von Willebrand's disease, 620-1 "bleeding fever" (yellow fever), 1100 blennorrhea (gonococcal conjunctivitis), see gonorrhea; ophthalmia blindness (see also conjunctivitis;

onchocerciasis; ophthalmia; trachoma), 143, 334, 349,493 "bloody flux," see amebic dysentery; bacillary dysentery; diarrheal diseases; dysentery "blue disease" (Rocky Mountain spotted fever), 984

Board of Sick and Wounded Sailors (Great

Britain), 1004 bocio, see goiter

"boils of Guangdong" (syphilis), 356 A Boke, or Counseill Against the Disease Called the Sweate or Sweatyng Sicknesse by John Caius (1552), 1023 Bolivian Hemorrhagic Fever (Machupo),

595, 596, 597, 598, 817 Bombay Plague, 335 Book of Medicine (Assyrian, c. 300 B.C.), 1090

"boomergang leg" (yaws), 1099

Boston Children's Hospital, 848 Boston Dispensary, Venereal Disease

Clinic, 776 Boston Medical and Surgical Journal, 178 botulism, 19, 520, 623-5, 711 causative agent discovered, 19, 624, 711 clinical manifestations and pathology,

623-4 and encephalitis, 711 etiology, 623

history and geography, 520, 624 Bouchard's nodes, see osteoarthritis Boutonneuse fever, 456, 985 bovine tuberculosis, see tuberculosis Bowling Green State University, see universities brandy liver (cirrhosis), 652 Brazilian Yellow Fever Service, 1106 breakbone fever (dengue), 661 Bright's disease, see glomerulonephritis Brill's disease (typhus), 1081 Brill-Zinsser disease (typhus), 1081 British Colonial Office, 787 British Foreign Office, 1907 Conference on Sleeping Sickness, 556 British Institute of Preventive Medicine (London) (see also Lister Institute), 128 British Journal of Children's Disease

(1917), 845 British Medical Association, 184, 971, 972 British Medical Journal, 672 British Mediterranean Fever Commission, 627 British Museum, 1057 British Plague Commission, 513 British Public Health Act (1875), 1075 bronchitis, 36, 149, 351, 380, 382, 539,

616, 707, 807 bronchocele, see goiter broncho-pneumonia, see pneumonia Brown Institution (London), 584 brown lung disease, see occupational diseases

Brucella abortus, see brucellosis Brucella avis, see brucellosis Brucella melitensis, see brucellosis brucellosis (Malta fever), 303,457,505,

625-8,702,817,818,833,1079 causative agent discovered, 505, 625,

626, 627, 1079 clinical manifestations and pathology, 626

distribution and incidence, 626 etiology and epidemiology, 625-6 history and geography, 626-8 immunology, 626 and typhomalarial fever, 1079 vaccination, 626 "brunonianism," 86 bubas (syphilis/yaws), 537, 1099 bubo, see plague; syphilis, venereal buboes, see plague bubonic plague, see Black Death; plague Buerger's disease, 743 Bulaq press (Cairo), 32 Bup Sa Ban ("Prescriptions of the Masters of Silla"), 390

Bureau of Mines (United States), 190 Bureau of Science (Manilla), 610 Burkitt's lymphoma, 109 "button-scurvy," 1034 byssinosis (brown lung), see occupational diseases, brown lung cachexia Africana (pica), 501, 927, 930 California Institute of Technology, see universities Calv6-Perthes disease, 537 Cambridge University, see universities camp fever (epidemic typhus), 1080 Campylobacter enteritis, 604, 606, 677 cancer (see also Burkitt's lymphoma;

Epstein-Barr virus; leukemia), 1, 3, 6, 36, 41, 45, 95, 102-10, 121, 145,146, 176-85 passim, 187, 190-1, 211, 213, 233, 248, 257, 258, 265, 283, 332, 334, 351, 370, 371, 380, 384, 397, 399, 410, 411, 412, 437, 443, 474, 484, 517, 547, 580, 585, 651, 652, 654, 697, 720, 737, 744, 751, 773, 794, 796, 802, 804, 1064 and aflatoxin, 737 in Arab medicine, 102 and asbestos, 105, 517 "autonomy," 103 betel nut chewing and, 109, 474 "black bile" theory and, 102, 265 bladder, 105, 106, 109, 176, 351 "blastema," 103

and genetic predisposition, 106 cell theory and, 103 cervical, 107, 109, 176, 370 and herpes simplex, 773 and promiscuity, 107, 108 and race differences, 108 and changing concepts, 102-9 and charcoal, 109

confused historically with erysipelas and gangrene, 265 correctal, 103, 107, 109, 146, 370, 412,

697, 802, 804 data on cause of death by, 211 diagnosis biochemistry, 104 endoscopy, 104 imaging, 104 and diet, 107, 145, 146, 371, 517 discovery of lymphatic system and, 102 Epstein-Barr virus, 109 esophageal, 109,176, 370, 371 in females, the most common, 104, 370 and food additives, 108 contaminants, 108 genetic resistance to, 109 and goiter, 751 and hepatitis B virus, 108 history and geography, 1, 3, 6, 36, 41, 45, 102-10, 121, 145, 146, 176, 178, 184, 257-8, 265, 283, 293, 332, 334, 351, 363, 364, 370-1, 380, 384, 397, 399, 410,411,

in Africa, sub-Sahara, 107, 108,109 in the Americas Latin America and the Caribbean, 107

North, 95, 102-10 passim, 332 in Asia Central, 109 East, 108 China: ancient, 351; modern,

108, 363, 364, 370-1 Japan, 106,107,108; premodern,

380, 384 Korea, premodern, 397, 399 South, 108 ancient, 410,411,412; modern, 474

Southeast, 437, 443

ancient, 410, 411,412 Southwest, 109 in Australia and Oceania, 109, 484 in Europe Western antiquity, 265 early modern, 102, 283 modern, 105-8 passim, 517 in Middle East and North Africa, 102, 334

in modern world, 109, 517 in pre-history, 248, 257-8 kangri burn, 474 Kaposi's sarcoma, 547 kidney, 105, 176 larynyx, 176, 184 leukemia, 104, 105, 108, 176 lip, 178

652, 654, 737, 794, 796 and liver fluke, 109 lung, 104,105,106,108,109,176,178,

179,183,184,185,191,370,371 classified as phthisis or consumption, 178

and death rates by sex, 106 and genetic predisposition, 106 lymph theory, 103 in males, the most common, 104 mastectomy, 102 melanoma, 107-8

and race differences, 107-8 metastasis, 102, 103, 109 microscopy, 103

mortality rates, 102-9 passim, 213 nasopharynx, 176, 178, 248, 258, 371 occupational, 103, 187, 190-1 oral, 109, 176, 178 pancreas, 105, 176, 412, 697 prostrate, 104,105, 109, 176 and age, 107 and promiscuity, 107 race-related survival differences, 105 radiation and, 108 radioactive substances and, 103 radon gas and, 108 remission, 103 Roman medicine for, 102 and salt, 108 sarcoma, 102, 103

Schistoma haematobium, 109 scrotal, 103, 178 skin, 107

517, 697 thyroid, 108, 474

tobacco products, 105, 106, 108, 109,

146, 176-85 passim, 371, 517 trachea, 176 treatments, 109

ultraviolet light and, 103, 107-8, 109 and urbanism, 370 uterine, 105, 397 viruses, 103, 109 and X-rays, 103, 108 "Cancer of the Andes" (uta), 538 cancroma, see cancer Candida albicans, and AIDS, 548 candidiasis, see fungus infections

(mycoses) canine distemper, and measles, 873 Canon of Medicine by Avicenna (c. 1000),

12, 747, 838 Caraka Samhita (c. 123), 601 carate (pinta), 932 carcinode, see cancer carcinoma, see cancer cardiac disease (ChD), see heart-related diseases

Cardiovascular Diseases Subcommittee of the National Research Council (United States), 972 Caribbean, see Americas, diseases of Carnegie Foundation, 205 Carri6n's disease, 4, 537-8, 631-5 and anemia, 631-5 clinical manifestations, 632 definition, 631

diagnosis and treatment, 634 epidemiology and etiology, 631-2 experimental transmission, 631-2 history and geography, 635 immunology, 632 pathology, 632-4 vaccination, 635 "Casal's necklace" (pellagra), 919-20 Cases of Apoplexy and Lethargy with Observations upon the Comatose Diseases by John Cheyne (1812), 585 Catalogue of Arthropod-borne Viruses, 595

catarrh (see also influenza), 2, 283, 347-8,

350, 635-6 catarrhus, see catarrh ccara (pinta), 537

Cecil's Textbook of Medicine (1948 edition), 769 Census of India (1913), 470 Centers for Disease Control (CDC), see United States, Public Health Service

Central Institute of Research in

Indiginous Systems of Medicine (India), 32 cephalic tetanus, see tetanus cerebral arteriosclerosis, see Alzheimer's disease cerebrospinal fever, see meningitis cerebrospinal meningitis (see also meningitis; poliomyelitis), 2, 303, 448, 451, 452 cestode infections, 636 Chagas-Cruz disease, see Chagas' disease Chagas' disease, 4, 98, 538, 541, 542, 636-8

clinical manifestations and pathology, 637

definition, 636-7 distribution and incidence, 636 history and geography, 637—8 chalicosis, see occupational diseases chancroid, 396, 405 charbon, see anthrax Charity Hospital (New Orleans), 973 Charity Hospital (Paris), 152, 824, 827 Charmides by Plato (c. fourth century

B.C.), 47 chaude pisse (gonorrhea), 759 Chen-chiu ta-ch'eng ("Complete Presentation of Needling and Cauterization") by Yang Chi-chou (1601), 25 Chester Infirmary (London), 961 "Cheyne-Stokes respiration," 585 Chhun Chhiu, 347 chickenpox, see varicella zoster Chikungunya fever, 663, 699 "childbed fever," see erysipelas; puerperal fever; streptococcal diseases children and infants, diseases of, 25, 147-56, 151-2, 154-5, 303 concepts and classifications of, 147—51 congenital, 153-4 deficiency diseases, 152-3 history and geography, 25, 147-54, 397 and hospitals, 149-50 infections, 154-5, 303 and nutrition, 151-2, 303 Children's Bureau (Great Britain), 222 China: The Health Sector (1984), 363 China Imperial Maritime Customs Medical Reports, 728 chincough (whooping cough), 1094-6 passim

Chinese Communist Party, 997 "Chinese disease" (leprosy), 488 Chinese Hospital (Java), 435 Chinese Imperial Maritime Customs Medical Service, 728, 1079 Chinese liver fluke, see clonorchiasis Chinese medicine, see medicine and medical history chiropractic, 2, 34, 164-70 and germ theory of disease, 167-8 and "heroic" medicine, 165 history, 164-70 legal recognition, 166-7, 169 Le Chirurgien dentiste, ou traité des dents by Pierre Fauchard (1728), 926 chlamydial infection, 898 chlamydia trachomatis, 756 chlorosis (see also anemia), 2, 82, 144, 340, 572, 573, 638-42 clinical manifestations, 638-9, 640 distribution and incidence, 640-1

etiology and treatment, 639-40 and female susceptability, 638-41 and green skin color, 144, 638,639, 640, 641

history, 640-1

and iron deficiency, 144, 572, 573, 639-41

and pica, 639 cholecystitis, 738 cholelithiasis, see gallstones cholera (Asiatic), 5, 6, 7, 14, 18,19, 30, 59, 127, 128, 151, 160, 176, 202, 297, 303-4, 323, 334,351, 354, 356, 357, 367, 380, 382, 384, 387, 400, 401, 402, 407, 412, 414-15, 416, 418, 419,420-2, 423, 427, 428, 432, 434, 436, 441, 442, 448, 450, 458, 464, 465, 491, 501-2, 523,524, 527, 529, 541, 542, 641-9, 677, 678, 679, 730, 1059 causative agent discovered, 19,527,

642, 647, 648 clinical manifestations and pathology, 644

definition, 642-3 El Tor strain, 458 epidemics and pandemics

1817-24 (first pandemic), 415, 646 East Africa, 297 Korea, 402 1827-40 (second pandemic), 415, 646 Afghanistan, 647 Canada, 646 Caribbean, 647 China, 647 East Africa, 297, 415 Great Britain, 202, 415, 646 Italy, 647

Latin America, 647 North America, 527 Northern Europe, 646 Portugal, 647 Russia, 646 Spain, 647 United States, 646 1844-55 (third pandemic), 415, 647 Brazil, 541 Europe, 647 North America, 527 Persia, 647 Turkey, 647 United States, 647 1858-9 (East Africa), 297 1863-74 (fourth pandemic), 415, 647 Great Britain, 202 North America, 527 1881-96 (fifth pandemic), 647

Korea, 402 1899-1923 (sixth pandemic), 647 Korea, 402

1946 (Korea), 407

1947 (Egypt), 458

1961 to mid-1970s (seventh pandemic) 642, 647 1961 epidemic and current distribution, 641, 643 1970s (Europe), 643

1990s (South America), 524 epidemiology and distribution, 643, 648 eitology, 643

and famine, 160, 420, 422 history and geography, 644—9 in Africa, sub-Sahara before 1860, 14, 297, 448, 450 since 1860, 303-4 in the Americas, since 1700 Latin America and the Caribbean, 107, 323, 415, 420, 421, 501-2, 523, 524, 527, 528, 541, 542, 647

North America, 527, 528, 529, 647 in Asia East

China: ancient, 351; premodern, as a new disease, 354, 356, 357, 402, 646; modern, 367 Japan: premodern, 380, 382, 384; early modern, as a new disease, 387 Korea, modern, as a new disease, 400, 401, 402, 407 South ancient, 412, 414, 642; premodern, 334, 414-15, 416; sixteenth century, 334, 414-15, 645; eighteenth century, 415, 645; nineteenth century, 645, 646; modern, 418, 419, 420-2, 423, 441, 442, 464, 465, 647 Southeast, antiquity to early modern, 427, 428, 432, 434, 436 in Australia and Oceania, 491 in Middle East and North Africa, 458 nineteenth century, 646 immunology, 643—4 and Instituts Pasteur d'Outre-Mer, 128 treatment for, 644, 648-9 vaccination, 401, 421-2, 452, 644 cholera asiatica, see cholera cholera asphyxia, see cholera cholera epidemica, see cholera cholera infantum, 151, 388 cholera morbus, 642 cholera nostras, 642 cholera spasmodica, see cholera chorea, see Huntington's disease Chou li ("Records of Institutions of the

Chou Dynasty"), 348 Christian science, 77 Christmas disease, see bleeding disorders Christmas factor (Factor IX), see bleeding disorders chronic cavitary histoplasmosis, see histoplasmosis chronic cor pulmonale, see dropsy; heart-

related diseases chronic dust-induced respiratory disease (CDIRD; brown lung), see occupational diseases chronic granulomatosus disease, 124 "The Chronicles of Japan," see

Nihonshoki chronic nephritis, 697 chronic obstructure lung disease (COLD), 370

chronic rheumatic arthritis (rheumatoid arthritis), 600 Chu-ping yuan-hou lun ("On the Origin and Symptoms of All Diseases") by Chao Yuan-fang (seventh century), 57 chyluria, see filariasis Ciba Symposium (1958), 706 cigarette smoking, see tobaccosis ciguatera poisoning, 493 cirrhosis, 2, 351, 353, 382, 412, 443, 649-53, 689, 690, 738, 794-8 passim and alcohol, 649-53 passim causes discovered, 653 classification, 649-50 definition, 649

distribution and incidence, 650 and dropsy, 689 epidemiology, 650-1 and hepatitis, 794-8 passim and liver cancer, 651 citta (pica), 927

Civilization and Its Discontents by Sig-

mund Freud (1929), 77 "clap," see gonorrhea classical antiquity, diseases of, see Europe, diseases of, Western antiquity clay eating, see pica Cleveland Clinic, 850 Clinique Médicale de l'Hôtel-Dieu de Paris by A. Trousseau (1865), 585 Cloister of Monte Cassino, 12 clonidine, 173 clonorchiasis, 109, 654 Cnidian school, 47

Coal Mine Health and Safety Act (1969), 191

coal workers pneumoconiosis (CWP; black lung), see occupational diseases Coca-Cola, 173

coccidioidomycosis, see fungus infections

(mycoses) "Cochin-China diarrhea," see strongyloidiasis cold sores, see herpes simplex Cold Spring Harbor Symposium (1967),

134, 136, 137 colérica passio, see cholera cólica pictonum (lead poisoning), 824 "colic of Devonshire" (lead poisoning), 824 "colic of Poitou" (lead poisoning), 824 colitis, see inflammatory bowel disease A Collection of Proper Methods (Chuanya)

by Zhao Xuemin (1759), 360 College of Physicians (London), 91 College of Physicians and Surgeons (Columbia University), 817 Colonial medicine, see medicine and medical history, tropical color blindness, 117 Columbia University, see universities Commentaries on the History and Cure of Disease by William Heberden (1802), 906 Commission on Educational Standards

(chiropractic), 168 Committee on Medical Research, see

United States, Committee on Medical Research Common Lodging House Act (Great Britain), 202

The Condition of the Working Class in England in 1845 by Frederick Engels, 187 condyloma, 369

congenital rubella syndrome (CRS), see rubella congestive heart failure and dropsy, 689-

96 passim Congo-Crimean hemorrhagic fever, 699, 701, 819

Congrès International des Gouttes de Lait

(Paris, 1905), 152 Congress of Industrial Organizations

(CIO), 192 conjunctivitis (see also blindness;

ophthalmia; trachoma), 406, 411, 757, 775 Connecticut State Health Department, 854

Conn's syndrome, 793 consumption, see tuberculosis "The Contagiousness of Puerperal Fever" by Oliver Wendell Holmes (1842), 720, 1014 Convention on Psychotropic Drugs (1971), 175

convulsions, 151, 399, 430 convulsive ergotism, see ergotism "coolie itch" (hookworm disease), 784 corneal herpes, 773, 775, 777 Cornell University, see universities coronary heart disease, see heart-related diseases cor pulmonale, see heart-related diseases coto (goiter), 538

"coughing sickness" (influenza), 379 "Counterblaste to Tobacco" by James I

(1604), 177 "country fever of Constantinople," see brucellosis coxsackievirus, and meningitis, 875 crab yaws, see yaws "craw-craw," see onchocerciasis "creeping sickness," see ergotism cretinism, see goiter Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, 563 "crib death," see sudden infant death syndrome

Crohn's colitis (Crohn's disease), see inflammatory bowel disease Crohn's disease, see inflammatory bowel disease Croonian lectures, 119 croup (see also diphtheria), 654-7 clinical manifestations, 655-6 definition, 654

and diphtheria, 654-6 passim epidemiology and etiology, 654-5 history, 656 cryptococcosis, see fungus infections (mycoses)

Curtis's Works on Diseases of India (Edinburgh, 1807), 645 Cushing's syndrome, 793, 1089

cutaneous herpes (HSV-1), see herpes simplex

"Cutter Incident" of 1955, 943, 945

Cutter Laboratories, 943

Cyclopedia of the Diseases of Children by

J. M. Keating (1889), 153 cynanche maligna (diphtheria), 991 cystic fibrosis, 6, 124, 657-8, 814 cause identified, 658 clinical manifestations, 657-8 definition, 657 etiology, 657

history and geography, 658 cytomegalovirus infection, 548, 659—60, 938

and acquired immune deficiency syndrome, 548 causative agent discovered, 660 clinical manifestations and pathology, 659

definition, 659

distribution and incidence, 659-60 history and geography, 660 immunology, 660 and pneumonia, 938

DSM, see Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Mental Disorders "DaCosta's syndrome," 94 "Dalziel's disease" (Crohn's disease), 806 "dandy fever," see dengue Dangerous Drugs Act of 1920 (United

Kingdom), 174 Dangerous Trades by Thomas Oliver

(1902), 189 Darwinism, 118, 138, 153, 318, 319, 322 De Abditis Nonnulus ac Mirandis

Morborum et Sanationum Causis by Antonio Benivieni (1507), 740 De Anima Brutorum by Thomas Willis

(1672), 892 deer-fly fever (tularemia), 1068 Delaney Amendment to the U.S. Food,

Drug, and Cosmetic Act, 108 Delhi boil (leishmaniasis), 833 delirium, see mental illness Delta agent, see hepatitis, infectious De Mediana by Celsus (first century), 731, 1090

dementia, see Alzheimer's disease; mental illness; Parkinson's disease dementia praelox, 75 demography, see disease, human migration and history of; mortality De Morbis Veneris by Jean Astruc (1736),

776, 1030-1 De Morbus Artificum Diatriba ("Diseases of Workers") by Bernardino Ramazzini (1700), 187, 201 De Motu Cordis by William Harvey

(1828), 692-3 dengue (see also arboviruses), 2, 4, 6, 39, 293, 355, 367, 376, 404, 433, 442, 486, 503, 540-1, 592, 593, 660-4, 699, 1101 causative agent discovered, 664

dengue (cont.) definition, 660-1

and dengue shock syndrome, 660, 662

distribution, 592

epidemics

1779 (Dutch East Indies), 661, 663

1780 (Philadelphia), 661, 663 1827-8 (Spanish West Indies), 661 1885-6 (Fiji), 486

1927-8 (Athens outbreak), 663 1939 (Cook Islands), 486 1943-4 (Fiji), 486 1977 (Puerto Rican outbreak), 663 1981 (Caribbean outbreak), 663 1981 (Cuban epidemic), 663 1981-2 (Australian epidemic, northern Queensland), 663 1984 (Clark Air Force Base, Philippines, outbreak), 662 1984-5 (Mozambique outbreak), 663 1986 (Rio de Janeiro outbreak), 663 etiology and epidemiology, 593 and hemorrhagic dengue, 660, 661, 662 history and geography in Africa, sub-Sahara, 4, 663, 699

before 1860, 2, 293 in the Americas, since 1700: Latin America and the Caribbean, 503, 540, 541, 661, 663 in Asia East: China premodern, 355; modern, 367, 376 Southeast ancient and early modern, 433; modern, 442, 443 in Australia and Oceania, 486, 661, 663

vaccination, 661 Department of Health (United Kingdom), 600

De Pica by M. H. Boezo (1638), 927 depression, see mental illness De Rachitide by Francis Glisson (1650), 152

dermatophytosis, see fungus infections

(mycoses) The Description of the York Retreat by

Samuel Tuke (1813), 65 De Sedibus, et Causis Morborum, see On the Sites and Causes of Disease de Soto (Hernando) expedition, 320 devil's fire (ergotism), 718 Devonshire Royal Hospital (England), 765 "dew poison" (hookworm disease), 784 Diabetes in America by The National Diabetic Group (1985), 673 diabetes insipidus, see diabetes mellitus diabetes mellitus, 6, 36, 97, 145, 169, 293, 353, 375, 379, 382, 384, 392, 397-8, 412, 492, 523, 580, 665-76, 766, 837 clinical manifestations, 672 definition, 665

distribution and incidence, 671-2 epidemiology and etiology, 666-71 genetic factors, 667-8 and gout, 766

history of the classification of, 665-6 history and geography, 672-4 mortality, 672 and obesity, 668, 669-70 and thrifty gene hypothesis, 674 Diabetes Mellitus in the Tropics by J. A.

Tulloch (1962), 673 Diagnosis of Diseases of the Brain, Spinal Cord, Nerves and Their Appendages by J. Russell Reynolds (1866), 585 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Mental Disorders (DSM), 79, 80, 81, 82, 89, 577 diarrheal diseases (acute) (including infantile) (see also amebic dysentery; bacillary dysentery; dysentery; giardiasis; inflammatory bowel disease; lactose intolerance and malabsorption; protein-energy malnutrition), 95, 147, 151, 161, 212,213, 266-7, 297, 298, 299,303, 304, 320, 323, 330, 387, 391, 413, 422, 429, 456, 457, 461, 465, 467, 484, 491, 538, 541, 573, 675, 676-80, 745, 766,873, 930

clinical manifestations, 677-8 definition, 675

distribution and incidence, 676-7

etiology and epidemiology, 677

history, 679

immunology, 677

pathology, 678-9

and pica, 930

prevention and treatment, 679 dichuchuia, 1034 Dick test, 991, 992

diphtheria (see also croup), 19, 48,127, 128, 135, 137, 150, 154,155, 161, 164, 265-6, 270, 282, 291, 303, 320, 323, 353, 354, 355, 356, 380, 388, 391, 395, 399, 401, 406, 407, 410, 412, 452, 458, 465, 467, 487, 499, 523, 541, 654-6, 680-3, 879, 991, 1045

causative agent discovered, 19,150, 681, 682

clinical manifestations and pathology, 681

definition, 680

diagnosis and treatment, 681-2 distinguished from scarlet fever, 1015 distinguished as separate illness, 320, 682

distribution, incidence, and immunity, 680-1 epidemiology, 681 and famine, 161 history and geography, 682—3 in Africa, sub-Sahara, since 1860,

303, 452 in the Americas

1492-1700, 323, 499, 523, 541 since 1700, Latin America and the Caribbean, 541

in Australia and Oceania, 487 in Asia East

China: ancient, 353; premodern, as a new disease, 354, 355, 356 Japan: premodern, 380; early modern, 388 Korea: ancient, 391; premodern, 395, 399; modern, 401, 406, 407 South ancient, 410; modern, 465, 467 in Europe Western antiquity, 265-6 Middle Ages, 270

Renaissance and early modern, 282 1700-1900, 291 in Middle East and North Africa, 458 and scarlet fever, 991 treatment, 127, 128, 135, 137, 154, 164, 681-3

vaccination, 127, 128, 129, 135,137, 452, 682-3, 879, 944 diphtheritis, see diphtheria "dirt eating" (pica), 930 "disease of acclimation" (yellow fever), 1101

disease and human progress and agricultural revolution, 279-93 passim, 497-8 and animal husbandry, 247, 248, 250,

251, 293-5, 305, 505 and early agriculture, 36-7, 247-8,

250, 293-5, 311-13, 477, 522 primitive peoples and relative freedom from disease, 248, 293-5, 305, 320, 448, 482-3, 497-8, 506-7, 521-2

and urbanism, 247-8, 272-3, 276, 284-5, 448, 477-8, 505 disease, human migration and history of in Africa, 300-1, 450-1 from, to the Americas, 317-26 passim, 450-1, 499-502, 523-6, 539-41

and the slave trade, 39, 295-6 trypanosomiasis in, 556, 557, 558 in America, North: United States, amebic dysentery, 569

520-2 China, 37

China to Europe, 38 India cholera and the British Army, 645-6,647

cholera and the Hindu pilgrimage, 421, 422, 645 in Australia and Oceania, 482-5

Pacific, 40-1 conjunctivitis and troop movement,

903-4 in Europe the Crusades, 38, 272

and conjunctivitis, 902 from, to Africa, 447-52 passim from, to the Americas, 36-7, 39-40,

317-26 passim, 497-9, 500-2, passim, 523-9, 539-42 passim leprosy and the army of Alexander,

273-4 Rome, 37 and filariasis, 727 in Middle East and North Africa cholera and the Muslim pilgrimage,

467, 647 leprosy to North Africa, 459 malaria and the Muslim pilgrimage, 455

and multiple sclerosis, 884-5 and plague, 276, 612, 630-1 and syphilis, 286 Diseases III in the Hippocratic corpus, 1044

Diseases of the Brain and Nervous System by Richard Bright (1831), 585 Disease Surveillance Point (DSP) System,

China, 370 "disease of the three d's" (pellagra), 918 "disease of the Western barbarians" (cholera), 387

Dispensatory of the United States of America (1836), 766 disseminated histoplasmosis, see histoplasmosis diverticular disease, 36 Division of Child Hygiene (New York

City), 204 Doctrine of Double Truth, 514 Dogmatists, 12 Domesday Book, 271 "dose," see gonorrhea dothinenteritis, see typhoid Down's syndrome, see Down syndrome Down syndrome (see also genetic diseases), 6,113, 121-3, 564, 683-6, 866 and Alzheimer's disease, 564 clinical manifestations, 684-5 cytogenetics, 113, 121-3 definition, 683

distribution and incidence, 684 epidemiology and etiology, 684 history and geography, 121-3, 685-6 and mastoiditis, 866 and mother's age, 684 dracontiasis, see dracunculiasis dracunculiasis (Guinea worm infection), 4, 6,14, 17, 295, 299, 302, 303, 448, 500, 526, 687-9 clinical manifestations and pathology, 688

definition, 687

distribution and incidence, 687 epidemiology and etiology, 687-8 history and geography, 688 dracunculosis, see dracunculiasis dropsy (see also beriberi;

glomerulonephritis; heart-related diseases; hypertension), 47, 212, 334, 380, 382, 384, 414, 501, 689, 690-6 clinical manifestations and pathology,

690-1 definition, 689

distribution and incidence, 690 etiology and epidemiology, 689-90 history and geography, 691-6 "Dropsy Courting Consumption" (print by

Thomas Rowlandson), 690 drug addiction, see addiction Drug Supervisory Board (League of Nations, 1933-67), 175 Driisenfieber (infectious mononucleosis), 799

"dry bellyache" (lead poisoning), 501, 821, 825

dry beriberi, see beriberi

"dry colic" (lead poisoning), 824

dry gangrene, see gangrene

"dry gripes" (lead poisoning), 825

Dublin Lying-In Hospital, 1048

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), see muscular dystrophy Duffy blood group antigens (see also malaria, vivax), 448, 526, 858-9 dumdum fever (leishmaniasis), 833 Dutch East India Company, 435, 1002 dysentery (see also amebic dysentery; bacillary dysentery; di

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