Urolithiasis Renal and Urinary Bladder Stone Disease

The major forms of urolithiasis consist of either upper tract stones within the kidneys or ureters (renal stones) or lower tract stones formed within the bladder. These two forms of urolithiasis have distinct differences in etiology, chemical composition, and epidemiological features, and should therefore be considered two separate diseases.

Historical evidence has shown a striking increase in incidence of renal stone disease in more developed countries over the past 100 years. There has been a simultaneous decrease in bladder stone incidence, demonstrating an inverse relationship between the two disorders. Changes in the environment have a profound effect on the epidemiology of human diseases. An unusual example of this interplay is the role of dietary change in the shifting epidemiological pattern from bladder stone to renal stone disease.

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