Human Figures Ebook
Galen's positive contribution to medical knowledge is undeniable, but many of his ideas were seriously flawed. This would not have mattered too much were it not for the fact that, after he died, Galen's authority dominated and therefore hampered medical science and practice for some 400 years. A particularly interesting example of his influence can be seen in the early anatomical drawings of Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519). In one drawing of the head, the brain is depicted crudely consisting of three simple cavities labelled O, M, and N. Leonardo interpreted the anatomical division in functional terms in a way that would have been
Behavior, but sometimes there is a strong emotional reaction of anxiety and fear. Peduncular hallucinosis can recur in a stereotyped manner over weeks. In posterior cerebral artery infarcts, hallucinations are more common after partial occipital lesions. Hallucinations are complex, colored, stereotyped, featuring animal or human figures. They are apparent in the abnormal visual field. They appear in general with a delay of days after the vascular event. The phenomenology of hallucinations does not always reflect the localization of the lesion, because the damaged area may serve as the focus of an abnormally activated neuronal network. Visual hallucinations can be associated with seizures and the EEG may show epilepti-form activity. Visual hallucinations usually resolve spontaneously, but are resistant to treatment.
Ernst Cassirer rightly considered that the most characteristic human attribute is the abstract capacity to invent and use symbols 8 . The earliest record of symbol writing has been found in ochre engravings of unknown meaning in the Blombos Cave in South Africa, dated to about 100,000 years ago 9 . Ice age hunter-gatherers who lived 30,000-50,000 years ago painted, not only realistic animals, but also some half-animal and half-human figures in several European caves. The significance of their drawings, or their carvings of little ivory statuettes, remains unclear, but they are certainly examples of a burgeoning artistic ability. The religious meaning of many sculptures in Mesopotamia and Egypt only became evident to us much later, with the decoding of writing, which was invented about 5,000 years ago.
Standing that observational data derived from the interview setting can be used for arriving at good clinical hypotheses, additional data are always necessary. For example, psychological testing provides valuable information that will enhance one's capacity to make clinical judgments and develop appropriate formulations. It is interesting to note that the observational categories described earlier also may be used to organize the data that emerge from psychological test reports. For example, the findings of the Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test and various intelligence tests provide very useful data about the physical and neurological integrity of the central nervous system. Subtle lags in instrumental or conceptual cognitive abilities can be detected through these tests. Data from the Rorschach Test will occasionally expose a child's covert difficulties in distinguishing fantasy from reality (assuming this distinction is age-appropriate). Responses to the Rorschach Test, as well as to...