Garments

Atopic eczema (according to the recommendation of the World Allergy Organization 2003 Nomenclature Task Force (Johansson et al., 2004)) or atopic dermatitis (AD, the more popular term in the literature), is the only clinical entity for which garments made of coated textiles have been systematically tested in patients. Atopic eczema is an inflammatory, chronically relapsing, non-contagious and extremely itching skin disease that is also named 'neurodermatitis' or 'endogenous eczema', etc. It is...

Historical examples of serious infections

Plague is an infectious disease, caused by the bacteria Yersinia pestis, which has a high fatality rate without treatment. Plague infections have occurred in three pandemics since the 6th century, the first of which was the 'plague of Justinian', named after the Roman Emperor. It started around 532 in Africa and then spread, reaching Constantinople in 541 and then Italy, France and Germany. The outbreak in Constantinople is described in detail by Procopius of Caesarea in records that have...

Man fights back antibiotics

In the 17 th century it was known that natural products were effective in minimising the symptoms of certain protozoal diseases. The bark of the cinchona tree, which contains quinine, was effective against malaria, whilst emetine, obtained from the ipecacuanha root, was effective against amoebic dysentery. There were, however, very few options for the treatment of bacterial infections, although mercury had been used to treat syphilis since the 16th century (thus explaining the warning to men...

Bacteria fight back antibiotic resistance mechanisms

Fleming observed in his early laboratory experiments that he could isolate resistant colonies of bacteria that had been treated with penicillin. He sounded a very prescient note of warning in his Nobel Lecture on the potential risk of underdosing when treating a streptococcal infection and how this could 'educate them to resist penicillin' (Fleming, 1945). However, the rate of discovery of a large number of antibiotics that were effective in treating infections caused by bacterial pathogens...

References

Badner B., Zelner L., Merchant R. and Laufman H. (1973a). Costs of Linen vs. Disposable OR Packs Results of Analysis of Recycling and Storage Costs in 24 Hospitals by Various Sizes and Types, Hospitals, 47, 10-13. Badner B., Zelner L., Merchant R. and Laufman H. (1973b). A Fresh Look at Cost of Hospital Laundry vs. Disposables, Inst. Laundry, 17, 8-13. Badrossamay M.R. and Sun G. (2009a). Durable and Rechargeable Biocidal Polypropylene Polymers and Fibers Prepared by Using Reactive Extrusion,...

Containment fabrics to protect against biological threats

The level of protection and containment that is required to protect operators from exposure to micro-organisms varies according to a defined microbial hazard group (Table 11.1), as classified by the World Health Organization (WHO) Laboratory Biosafety Manual, 2004 Biosafety7.pdf). The level of personal protective equipment (PPE) required is balanced against the hazard group of the organism, ranging from 1 to 4 the higher the hazard group, the higher the level of containment and PPE required. A...