Common types of sterilisation methods

Four common types of sterilisation are in use today gas, irradiation, steam autoclave and dry heat. The first two types of sterilisation are also called low-temperature sterilisation methods, applied mostly to single-use products. The latter two types are also called high-temperature sterilisation methods, and are applied to reusable products. Many sterilisers, such as those used in hospitals, use saturated steam and dry heat, but these methods are not practical for some plastics and other...

Garments

Atopic eczema (according to the recommendation of the World Allergy Organization 2003 Nomenclature Task Force (Johansson et al., 2004)) or atopic dermatitis (AD, the more popular term in the literature), is the only clinical entity for which garments made of coated textiles have been systematically tested in patients. Atopic eczema is an inflammatory, chronically relapsing, non-contagious and extremely itching skin disease that is also named 'neurodermatitis' or 'endogenous eczema', etc. It is...

Man fights back antibiotics

In the 17 th century it was known that natural products were effective in minimising the symptoms of certain protozoal diseases. The bark of the cinchona tree, which contains quinine, was effective against malaria, whilst emetine, obtained from the ipecacuanha root, was effective against amoebic dysentery. There were, however, very few options for the treatment of bacterial infections, although mercury had been used to treat syphilis since the 16th century (thus explaining the warning to men...

Bacteria fight back antibiotic resistance mechanisms

Fleming observed in his early laboratory experiments that he could isolate resistant colonies of bacteria that had been treated with penicillin. He sounded a very prescient note of warning in his Nobel Lecture on the potential risk of underdosing when treating a streptococcal infection and how this could 'educate them to resist penicillin' (Fleming, 1945). However, the rate of discovery of a large number of antibiotics that were effective in treating infections caused by bacterial pathogens...