Online Hypnosis Training Course

Black Ops Hypnosis 2

Cameron Crawford is the name of the hypnosis master who developed a full unique hypnosis course called Black Ops Hypnosis 2, also known as underground hypnosis or covert hypnosis. He worked closely with a guy who he only discloses as the Professor for two years to develop the most controversial and effective secrets of mind control. He is the only protg of the Professor and nowadays known to be among the most powerful experts of mind control in the entire world. The actual product is basically a course on various techniques of hypnosis. It comes in a series of training audio tracks which explain the mind control and hypnosis techniques in extreme details. It actually a first of its kind to hit the public market and the reviews and testimonials that are rolling back in are very positive. That can only be as a result of how effective and powerful the techniques are. There are 8 featured tracks to describe the various techniques of Dark Side Hypnosis. This course is basically for anyone with a need to get a deeper understanding of how the human brain functions on a social level. Its only intended for good use and by no means should it be used negatively. Read more...

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Creativity and Hypnosis

The term 'hypnosis' is used to refer to a variety of structured, goal-oriented procedures in which the suggestibility and or motivation of an individual or a group is enhanced by another person (or persons), or by oneself. These procedures attempt to blur, focus, and or amplify attention and or mentation (e.g., imagination and intention), leading to the accomplishment of specified behaviors or experiences that reflect expectations and role enactments on the part of the 'hypnotized' individuals or groups who attend (often with little awareness) not only to their own personal needs but to the interpersonal or situa-tional cues that shape their responses. Other research data emphasize the part that attention plays in hypnosis, enhancing the salience of the suggested task or experience. Both these bodies of hypnosis literature stress the interaction of several variables, suggesting that there are great individual differences in hypnotic responsiveness some excellent participants are...

Guided Imagery and Hypnotherapy

Imagery can focus attention away from symptoms, alter sensory experiences, reduce distress, induce relaxation, reframe symptom experiences, facilitate dissociation from pain, and enhance feelings of mastery and self-control. These techniques can also be used to problem-solve (e.g., to imagine being calm during a test) and to feel a sense of accomplishment. This intervention is best for children of school age or older. Gut-directed hypnotherapy, which includes gut-specific treatments and suggestions, was developed for individuals with irritable bowel syndrome and digestive disorders (Vlieger et al. 2007).

Autosuggestion and Hypnosis Manipulations

Perhaps the most frequently used experimental manipulation in the past ten years was developed by Velten in his doctoral research (Velten, 1967, 1968). Although Velten's procedure is often modified, in the original research, participants in the experiment read aloud or to themselves a series of statements designed to produce either elation, depression, or a neutral mood. They were instructed to be responsive and receptive to the idea of the statement. In many ways this manipulation is similar to hypnotic suggestions. Hypnosis is still another popular method in which the subject cooperates in achieving mood change. Bower (1981) and his associates have effectively used hypnosis to produce moods of happiness and sadness, and to study various aspects of information processing relative to these states. In several experiments this procedure involved using hypnotically susceptible persons (the top 15 percent of those tested for such susceptibility), who were hypnotized and then asked to...

Hypnosis and Self Hypnosis

Like other alternative therapies, hypnosis has existed in one form or another since early recorded history, and like early alternative therapies it was often tied to magic and religion. Hypnosis was an important component of Native American healing rites, when hypnotic states typically were induced through chanting, sometimes in conjunction with hallucinogenic drugs. Modern medical hypnosis originated with the Viennese physician Franz Mesmer. Mesmer believed that the human body contained animal magnetism, and that imbalances in magnetic forces were the cause of illness. The therapy he applied, termed Mesmerism, involved the use of tranquil gestures and soothing words to relax the patient and to restore balance in the patient's magnetic forces. Although mesmerism did not find long-lasting support, the idea of using a state of altered awareness in medical treatment gradually gained wider acceptance. Self-hypnosis is easily taught. It is often used as a complementary therapy for cancer...


Patients with conversion disorder appear more susceptible to hypnosis than matched comparison patients with an affective disorder, with some data showing a correlation between susceptibility to hypnosis and number of conversion complaints (Roelofs et al. 2002). In this context, hypnosis has been suggested as a potential treatment intervention for hy-pochondriasis (Mutter and Coates 1990). Hypnosis may be useful in reducing symptoms of physiological and emotional arousal and may also be used to help distract the individual and divert attention away from physical symptoms. At a minimum, hypnosis may be useful in providing patients with a face-saving method of obtaining control over their symptoms (Maldonado and Spiegel 2000). In a case series, significant reductions in symptoms and disability were demonstrated immediately following and 6 months after treatment using hypnosis (Moene et al. 1998). Self-hypnosis relaxation techniques such as favorite place imagery and progressive...


In hypnotherapy, therapeutic suggestions are given to patients when they are in a hypnotic trance. Hypnosis is an altered state of consciousness in which the patient may be more receptive to such suggestions (Olness and Kohen 1996). Hypnotherapy includes specific goals (e.g., mastery, ego-strengthening, decreased unpleasant sensations) and techniques (e.g., relaxation, visual imagery, age regression, unconscious exploration) utilized while a child is in a state of focused concentration. Hypnosis has been shown to be superior to medications in the treatment of pe-diatric migraines (Hammond 2007 Olness et al. 1987). Preoperative hypnosis in children with elective surgical procedures was found to shorten postoperative hospital stay and decrease reports of anxiety and subjective pain compared with usual treatment (Lambert 1996). One randomized, controlled trial of hypnotherapy compared with standard medical care for pediatric irritable bowel disease demonstrated a significant reduction in...

Cross Cultural Comparisons

The history of hypnosis is more recent. In the middle of the nineteenth century, James Braid introduced the term 'neuro-hypnotism' or 'nervous sleep' (from the Greek hypnosis, or sleep). However, it can be claimed that the roots of hypnosis reach back to tribal rites and the practices ofshamans. Hypnoticlike procedures were used in the court of the Pharaoh Khufu in 3766 BCE priests in the healing temples of Asclepius induced their clients into 'temple sleep,' and the ancient Druids chanted over their clients until the desired effect was obtained. Herbs were used to enhance verbal suggestion by native shamans in pre-Columbian Central and South America. It is, nonetheless, incorrect to label these procedures 'hypnosis' simply because they drew upon similar procedures such as suggestion, repetitive stimuli, and expectations of the client. People, groups, and cultures are 'creative' during those periods of time when they exhibit activities that are innovative for that specific group in...

Neurophysiology Mechanisms

That are decoupled, totally or partially, from sensory input during many alterations in consciousness. A total decoupling takes place during dreaming, while partial decouplings take place in hypnagogic or hypnopompic states, daydreaming, meditation, and some drug-induced or hypnosis-induced conditions. Transitions from such states represent a fertile ground for the development of creative ideas, because the perceptual mechanisms automatically linked to organizing the sensory inputs would still occur, occasionally constructing novel and useful images from fragments of internal neural noise and loosely guided consultations with memory. Language allows the abstract images and relationships to be translated into a communicable form. There is a direct relationship between perceptual processes and creative thought. The decoupling of normal sensory input during alternative states of consciousness should be viewed as distinct from restricting sensory input in an individual's normal waking...

Research Perspectives

The formal study of creativity dates back only to J. P. Guilford's 1950 presidential address to the American Psychological Association, in which he urged his colleagues to pursue this overlooked area. After the connection between changed states of consciousness and divergent thinking was made, and investigations of the link among drugs, hypnosis, and creativity ensued, studies of additional altered and transitional states followed. Several studies examining the performance of scientists on lateral thinking tests found that highly creative scientists did not use lateral thinking more often than less creative scientists on these tests.

Learning from the past

Several questions regarding the research on hypnosis and creativity remain unanswered because of the absence of robust findings due to methodological differences in the studies, the varied hypnotic responsiveness of the subjects, and the fact that creativity has been measured in disparate ways. Even when similar tests are used, they are administered differently, and the tests themselves admittedly assess a single instance or aspect of creativity. It may be that restrictions in awareness increase the priming of associative networks (outside of one's awareness) by reducing cognitive interference. As a result, new associations are made, giving rise to creative insights. Imagination or fantasy provides a continuous backdrop to mentation outside of awareness, and hypnosis may increase its accessibility. Heart rate probably reflects shifts of attention from external to internal events, making it a potentially revealing way to assess the oscillation of attention from an external focus of...

Planning for the future

In this regard, what Richards has dubbed 'everyday creativity' is an overlooked phenomenon in a field which all too often emphasizes the exotic, the dramatic, and the spectacular. It is quite likely that creative work draws more upon the ordinary waking state with its intact subsystems of consciousness than upon altered and transitional states. Drugs can be ingested, meditation can be practiced, hypnosis can be utilized, and the contents of reverie can be recorded, but everyday behaviors and experiences can also provide inspiration for what later may become a novel approach to a long-delayed home repair, an improved golf stroke, a new recipe for a family dinner, a breakthrough in a troubled relationship, an ingenious logistical plan to divert restaurant leftovers to homeless people, a challenging educational technology, or any one of many other achievements. The need for creative approaches at all social levels has never been greater their development and application need to reflect...

Psychotic Syndromes

In patients with chronic mild or moderately severe anxiety, benzodiazepines, used sparingly for a few weeks to several months, can be helpful. When chronic treatment is necessary, buspirone, tricyclic antidepressants, and MAO inhibitors may be utilized in selected patients, particularly those with concomitant depression. Beta-blockers may also be useful in certain cases. Referral to a neuropsychologist or psychotherapist for training in self-reliance and relaxation techniques including biofeedback, meditation, and self-hypnosis should also be considered. The treatment of obsessive compulsive disorders should involve both pharmacological and psychological measures. Medications can significantly reduce the symptoms in over 50 percent of patients. Clomipramine is generally considered the drug of first choice, but other drugs with serotonergic properties such as fluoxetine, paroxetine, and clonazepam can be used.

Classical reference

Able 'by a loud noise, by the subject's own outcry, by certain pharmacologic agents, and by hypnosis'. In Fig. 1.4.1 (original figure) the strength output during repeated maximal voluntary efforts, is shown with and without a preceding gunshot or shout. Similar effects on strength were seen with the other interventions. The authors conclude that all their observations 'support the thesis that the expression of human strength is generally limited by psychologically induced inhibitions' and that the interventions decreased these inhibitions. They also emphasize the large variation between subjects in response to the interventions. They particularly point out one subject who showed no increase in strength under hypnosis. This subject was an 'experienced weight-lifter' and the interpreta

Behavioral Interventions

With brain tumor to function at the highest level possible for the longest time possible and has been shown to be cost effective.15 There are a number of behavioral strategies that can also enhance functional outcome in brain tumor patients. There is a growing literature about the positive effects of exercise on cancer-related symptoms.4 Behavioral interventions such as relaxation therapy and self-hypnosis may be very useful as well. Such strategies can alleviate symptoms such as pain, nausea, and fatigue and help patients relax and focus when they feel overwhelmed. Life-style alterations may also be useful. For instance a person with increased distractibility may be able to maintain employment given reasonable accommodations, such as flexibility of deadlines and a quieter work environment. Students may be able to continue in school if allowed to tape lectures and to take tests without time constraints.

Unconscious Processes

HE INFER NCE that unconscious mental processes determine a very large portion of our lives has proven enormously fruitful. Although the idea of unconscious mental life dates hack millennia, systematic investigation of unconscious mental processes began with the clinical researches of Sigmund Freud at the end of the 19th century. Listening to patients telling their stories with the use of hypnosis (following the example of his mentor, Josef Breuer), Freud grasped the usefulness of this central hypothesis the bedrock of psychoanalysis that the inexplicable, irrational nature of symptoms amid be understood to be meaningful if he inferred unconscious influences. The first hypothesis, in which he joined Breuer in the Studies on Hysteria (Breuer and Freud 1893-1895), introduced an explanatory mechanism, the hypnoid state, an altered state of consciousness that at least sometimes was induced by trauma. The hypothesis included the assumption that the memories of traumatic events that occurred...

Communicating Findings to the Medical Team and Family

Behavior modification programs Specific instructions on how to set limits or de-emphasize attention being paid to problematic behaviors. Clarification of roles of staff members and parents in implementation of the program. Outline specific approaches to behavior management. Medical hypnosis.

General Considerations

Studies have shown that the frequency of use of complementary or alternative medical therapy in the United States is far greater than previously reported. These therapies include relaxation techniques, imagery, chiropractic, massage, spiritual healing, herbal medicine, acupuncture, homeopathy, folk remedies, and prayer, to name a few. It has been estimated that 42 of the American population uses at least one of these and other alternative healing methods to satisfy their medical needs. The most common users of complementary and alternative therapy are the more affluent people, women, those better educated, individuals born after 1950, and those who are concerned about emotional stress and the environment. The most common therapies were relaxation techniques (18 ), massage (12 ), herbal medicine (10 ), and megavitamin therapy (9 ). The perceived efficacy of these therapies ranged from 76 (hypnosis) to 98 (energy healing). The number of visits to providers of this health care is greater...

Who Can Be Hypnotized

Roughly 90 of the general population can be hypnotized to some degree. Success depends on one's willingness and receptivity to the idea of hypnosis. Children appear to be more easily hypnotizable than adults, primarily because using the imagination comes easily and naturally for them, and because they tend to be creative and trusting. Most people are able to learn self-hypnosis quickly. The word hypnosis is used here to mean self-hypnosis as well. Hypnosis self-hypnosis is a state of focused attention or altered consciousness, a restful alertness in which distractions are blocked, allowing a person to concentrate intently on a particular subject, memory, sensation or problem. Hypnosis may be used instead of or as assist to anesthetic agents during surgical and dental procedures. It is especially helpful when allergy or some other circumstance prohibits anesthesia. It is also used to reduce stress, pain and anxiety, and to assist in removing undesired habits such as bed-wetting in...

What Practitioners Say It Does

At the very least, proponents say, hypnosis brings about a state of increased relaxation. Claims about its efficacy expand from there. It can serve some as a remedy for addiction, including drug, alcohol, and tobacco dependency. It helps some people maintain diets, relieve stress, and reduce anxiety. It can effectively relieve or eliminate chronic migraines, arthritis, and even warts, which appear to respond to various types of mental suggestion. There are documented instances of hypnosis analgesia used successfully under varying circumstances. A fifteen-year-old girl who was allergic to phar-macologic anesthesia, for example, completed successful heart surgery with hypnosis as the only analgesic. It enabled her to remain conscious during the four-hour procedure, without so much as an aspirin required during or after the surgery. Those who study hypnosis explain that it has measurable physiologic effects. Beyond its analgesic functions, hypnotic suggestion is known to steady the...

Treatment of Pain and Pain Disability

Many clinicians are unaware of the evidence base other than for commonly used medications. For example, some clinicians erroneously believe that a comorbid psychiatric disorder must be present for a cognitive-behavioral approach to be helpful or that medications should always be the first-line treatment. Consequently, both the consulting clinician and families may need to be educated about the evidence related to medications and other approaches. For example, meta-analyses reveal that hypnotherapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy can be more effective than medications in treating symptoms in adults with functional gastrointestinal disorders (Lackner et al. 2004 Whitehead 2006). Although less research has been done with pediatric samples, available evidence is consistent with this finding (Bursch 2008 Huertas-Ceballos et al. 2008).

Beliefs on Which It Is Based

A frequently voiced concern about hypnosis is that it involves the surrender of control, leaving the subject susceptible to the suggestion of the hypnotist. But the exact opposite is correct. Control by the subject is the most fundamental basis of hypnosis. The goal of hypnosis is for the subject to exert control over behavior, emotions, or physiological processes. In fact, with self-hypnosis, one can use the technique whenever needed. The self-control behind hypnosis helps people relax and become receptive to suggestion. The suggestion, geared to bring about relaxation or pain relief, or another desired result, may come from the patient or a practitioner. By placing themselves into a deep state of relaxation and focused attention, people learn to control pain or bodily functions, or to diminish situation-specific anxieties, such as fear of flying. People who are afraid to fly can hypnotize themselves and reevaluate their perceptions and attitudes about being in an airplane. They...

Research Evidence to Date

Because hypnosis has been used for several centuries, it has endured times of silliness and ridicule, and times of acceptance. Today the pendulum swings toward broader acceptance, primarily because solid research now documents the effectiveness and utility of hypnosis for both children and adults. An example of such studies is Stanford University's demonstration of electrical response brain waves. Hypnotized subjects were able to suppress the brain's electrical response to a visual cue by imagining that their view of the stimulus was blocked. Previously, this kind of response was assumed to be involuntary. Hypnotized subjects in the study also were able to control their skin temperature and blood flow. In PubMed, the U.S. government collection of all medical articles published in the medical literature world-wide, there are 1,400 citations for articles on hypnosis and pain, including 787 clinical trials or meta-analyses. Forty of the methodologically-sound clinical trials concerned...

What It Can Do for You

Hypnosis is not a cure-all for physical, emotional, or addictive disorders. It cannot reprogram the body and mind to stop smoking or drinking, for example. It cannot cure serious disease and should never be used as an alternative to conventional, mainstream medicine. It is not recommended for the treatment of psychosis, organic psychiatric conditions, or antisocial behavior. Hypnosis has significant and meaningful documented benefits. It usually produces a state of profound relaxation. It can refocus attention away from adverse stimuli, including pain, and increase the unconscious mind's receptivity to suggestion. In turn, this can bring about physiologic changes such as decreased pulse rate, temperature reduction or increase, and reduced blood flow to specified areas of the body. Hypnosis also is useful against addiction, anxiety, depression, pain and phobias.

The Beginnings of Psychoanalysis

When she came to Breuer for treatment, Anna O. was suffering from a variety of paralyses, aphasias, inhibitions, and periods of confused thinking. Breuer found that if he asked Anna under hypnosis to talk about the original circumstances associated with each of her symptoms, she reexperienced the circumstances vividly and her symptoms were thereby relieved. When Freud subsequently tried a similar procedure on his own patients, he soon gave up hypnosis. Instead, he simply (or perhaps not so simply) insisted that his patients tell him, as fully and with as little mental censorship as possible, what came into their minds whenever they began to think of their personal problems. Thus was born the practice of free association, the earliest element of psychoanalysis as a general therapeutic technique.

Therapeutic Interventions

Using progressive relaxation, biofeedback, or hypnosis, teach the client how to relax assign him her to relax twice a day for 10 to 20 minutes. 12. Using progressive relaxation, biofeedback, or hypnosis, teach the client how to relax assign him her to relax twice a day for 10 to 20 minutes.

Treatment Interventions

Ing with a childhood cancer diagnosis (Hendricks-Ferguson 2000), in addition the social workers and pediatric psychologists who are a part of each program (American Academy of Pediatrics 2009). Interventions for acute procedural pain and anxiety, including hypnosis (Richardson et al. 2006 Wild and Espie 2004) and other types of complementary and alternative care such as acupuncture (Rheingans 2007), have been found to be useful for acute distress, although they are not offered at all centers.

Sigmund Freud and the Psychological View

Often such an experience is buried in the unconscious. Although hidden from conscious awareness, this material could nevertheless have a powerful impact on a person's behavior. In his 1895 book with Josif Breuer, Studies on Hysteria, Freud discussed his discovery that the contents of the unconscious could be revealed by suggesting certain key words to patients (as well as by hypnosis). The contents of their unconscious would come forward through their seemingly random associations to those words. These contents are then dealt with by allowing conscious and unconscious ideas to mingle into an innovative resolution of the trauma. The creative act is seen as transforming an unhealthy psychic state into a healthy one.

Individual Psychotherapy

Psychotherapy is the treatment modality unique to mental health clinicians. Within its framework, the child seeks to integrate the facets of his or her life. Through words, art, and play, the child conveys the experience of living with the threat of loss and transforms the essence of his or her reality into expression. Self-help techniques, such as relaxation, guided imagery, and hypnosis, may be integrated into the psychotherapy to reduce symptoms of nausea, fatigue, insomnia, and pain (Kazak 2005 Kazak et al. 1996 Kersun and Shemesh 2007 Steif and Heiligenstein 1989). These techniques are not restricted to psychotherapeutic intervention and may be employed by other disciplines trained in their methodology.

Discovery and Early Developments

Transference appears in Freud's essays (Freud 1911, 1912a, 1912b, 1913, 1914, 19151 on technique as a discovery, whereas countertransference discussions (unction mostly as a cautionary tale. In a number ol ways, Freud's discovery that patients revive and relive die crucial conflicts of their psychic lives in the analytic relationship was remarkable. First, analysis of transference entailed a break with earlier powerful and compelling procedures of suggestion and hypnotic induction, techniques thought to reveal and release hidden sources of pathology and pain. Second, almost immediately Freud made a second discovery, namely that transference is used by the analysand as resistance to change but that this development could be turned quite uniquely toward psychic growth. It is as though Freud's intelligence functioned like a heat-seeking probe, burrowing into the most tender and incendiary aspect of the analytic relationship and finding there both trouble and revolution. Third, Freud was...

Evidence Based Treatment

The treatment of pain in HIV-positive youth is very important and often involves a multimodal approach. The treatment goal must be to minimize pain and oversedation when possible. Pediatric pain management principles using age-appropriate assessment of all developmental ages should be applied and include a repertoire of nonpharmacologi-cal (such as distraction, relaxation, psychotherapies, and hypnosis) and pharmacological treatments (Duff 2003 Greco and Berde 2005).

Sensitivity Openness Absorption and Synesthesia

Negatively correlated with dogmatism. Gregory J. Feist, in 1999, noted that openness to experience is found in both creative artists and scientists. McCrae and Costa further noted that openness to experience positively correlated with the Tellegen Absorption Scale. In 1974, Auke Tellegen and Gilbert Atkinson argued that absorption is the capacity for self-absorbed, self-altering attention found in peak and mystical experience, hypnosis, and artistic creativity. Absorption is a readiness for undistracted, deep cognitive affective involvement and a heightened sense of reality toward attentional objects. It permits the assessment of information in unconventional and idiosyncratic ways. In 1981 and 1987, Charles M. Rader and Tellegen discovered a significant correlation between absorption and synesthesia which is defined as the ability to transform, enrich, and encode events in multiple sensory modalities in an engaging manner. Synesthetes are noted to be very creative. Furthermore, many...

Psychotherapy for Victims

A controversial but often effective method of treating emotional trauma, eye movement desensitization response therapy attempts to address pathological changes in the patient's brain. Just as sensory stimuli can trigger memories of abuse or trauma, this approach uses eye movements as the body's natural way to expose and desensitize a person to a traumatic memory. A therapist uses visual stimuli in the form of hand movements or electronic pictures to trigger memories and emotions and then uses psychotherapy or hypnosis to reframe those experiences while desensitizing persons to their emotional pain.

Cross Fertilization and Conflict

1887) and Freud's study of hypnosis with Charcot and the opening of his practice with hysterics Frcud 1886a, 1886b Breuer and Freud 1 893-189S). They grew in parallel from the late 19th century through the mid 20th century, with considerable cross-fertilization as well as misunderstandings and conflicts. Psychoanalysis focuses attention inward and looks to psychic reality as the prime locus of experience anthropology gives preference to social causation and to the ideas and values shared by a group, thus turning attention outward. They occasionally talk past each other.

Unclassified Interventions

Another randomized, controlled trial examined the effects of relaxation alone versus relaxation with immune suggestion versus attention control on sali-vatory secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) in 90 Australian children ages 8-12 years (Hewson-Bower and Drummond 1996). Concentrations of saliva-tory sIgA increased in the two active conditions but not in the control condition, suggesting a therapeutic effect of hypnosis and relaxation on immune functioning. An effect size could not be calculated for this study because standard deviations of out

Classifications of Complementary and Alternative Medicine

Fort Iii Osteotomy

Mind-body interventions entail a wide variety of techniques to improve the mind's capacity to affect bodily function and symptoms. Cognitive therapies, biofeedback, meditation, hypnosis, prayer, and creative outlets such as dance, music, and art are common examples of mind-body interventions.

Synesthesia and Related Phenomena

Prevalence of typographic eidetikers might be in the vicinity of 0.1-1 . And yet, recalling (1) that synesthetes might very well be typographic eidetikers, (2) that both synesthetes and eidetikers might score high on the personality trait of absorption (see below), (3) that both synesthetes and eidetikers might be fantasy-prone, which is a trait positively correlated with that of absorption (see below), and (4) that typographic eidetic imagery might be recovered using hypnosis in such fantasy-prone individuals, it seems at least a fair working hypothesis to assume that this overlap in experience is indicative of the fact that it is the same target population of unique individuals that is being tapped, in the two fields of research. In fact, when these phenomena are viewed in unison, one also finds support for the weak form of synesthesia. Just as with respect to synes-thesia, there is also a weak form of eideticism, termed structural eidetic imagery, most probably apparent to some...

Provide a brief description of the types of mindbody therapy that have been used to treat patients with LBP

Cognitive-behavioral programs are a component of many established pain treatment centers. These programs focus on educating patients and teaching coping skills in a highly structured group setting under the guidance of a clinical psychologist. They frequently incorporate hypnosis, meditation, and biofeedback techniques

Electromagnetic Therapies

Franz Mesmer, an eighteenth-century Viennese physician, developed a theory of animal magnetism, which he believed to be a basic biophysical force similar to gravity and capable of producing profound neuropsychiatric and physical effects. His first scientific writing on this topic, On the Medicinal Uses of the Magnet, was published in 1775. Although he credited his successful treatment of a woman with numerous complaints to a magnet's ability to realign polarity in her internal organs, it soon became clear that he had discovered hypnotism instead. That is the source of the word mesmerize. Animal magnetism later was shown to be not a biophysical force, but a reaction to the power of suggestion. (For the use of hypnosis in reducing stress, see Chapter 15.)

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

Behaviors (e.g., inactivity, poor self-soothing) that adversely affect their functioning (see Table 28-3). For example, the belief that important medical information is being withheld may lead a child to the misconception that the prognosis is hopeless and undermine the willingness of the child to cooperate with medical treatment. CBT can be used to address specific emotional responses that result in distress about an illness or interfere with its treatment as well as to promote more positive coping behaviors. It also can be used to address disabling comorbid mood or anxiety symptoms. CBT techniques can also be utilized to help children differentiate factors that are realistically under their control from those that are not. For example, Weisz et al. (1994) found that children with leukemia who used secondary coping techniques (i.e., attempts to minimize the impact of an objective stressor) to deal with painful but necessary medical procedures reported better adjustment than those...

Refeeding and Nutrition

Malnutrition can cause delayed gastrointestinal transit, leading patients to experience abdominal pain, bloating, and constipation during the refeed-ing process. A warm pack to the abdomen can be helpful, as can relaxation techniques such as deep breathing, guided imagery, biofeedback, or hypnosis. If necessary, stool softeners, promotility agents, and or mild laxatives can also be used (American Psychiatric Association 2006).

Cognitive Behavioral Approaches

Sometimes such techniques allow children to avoid medications and their possible side effects completely. Strategies include parent training, family interventions, psychotherapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, relaxation, distraction, guided imagery and hypnotherapy, and biofeedback. Expertise with the techniques requires training and practice. Randomized trials provide evidence of efficacy for children and adolescents with functional abdominal pain, irritable bowel syndrome, headaches, procedural pain, and burn pain (Damen et al. 2006 Duarte et al. 2006 Hicks et al. 2006 Hoffman et al. 2008 Humphreys and Gevirtz 2000 Robins et al. 2005 Sanders et al. 1994 Stinson et al. 2008 Trautmann et al. 2006 Uman et al. 2006 Vlieger et al. 2007 Weydert et al. 2006). Preliminary research results are promising for children and adolescents with pain related to cancer, sickle cell anemia, complex regional pain syndrome, and arthritis (Lee et al. 2002 Walco et al. 1999 Wilder 2006)....

Mechanism of action

The characteristic central effects of 012-adrenoceptor agonists are sedation, anxiolysis and hypnosis. The locus caeruleus is a small neuronal nucleus in the upper brain stem that contains the major noradrenergic cell group in the brain. This nucleus is an important modulator of wakefulness. Activation of ci2-adrenocep-tors results in inhibition of transmitter release. The locus caeruleus also has connections to the cortex, thalamus and vasomotor centre.

The Cancer Counselling Center of Ohio

In the situation of life-threatening illness, anticipatory grief is compounded by uncertainty. At the Center, many clients have a disease which is potentially lethal. They face, as if this threat were not bad enough, the incursions and perhaps the worsening of bodily illness, the difficult treatments and their often debilitating side-effects, and the loss of many aspects of their customary daily life. The possibility of dying is just one facet of a much greater complex of issues. Treatment in these cases often calls for unique methods. We routinely use tools which can access the internal states - the subliminal message systems - that lie beneath the surface of conscious awareness. It is our belief that where denial, doubt, and ambivalence prevail, clearer messages can often be obtained from the 'inner self'. We begin with relaxation, brainwave biofeedback, or other calming techniques to create a disposition of openness. Then, mental imagery, searching for internal direction (i.e.,...

Irritable Bowel Syndrome

You can also try alternative remedies such as taking enteric-coated capsules of peppermint oil three times a day between meals (skip this one if you have heartburn), or explore yoga, meditation, or hypnosis to lessen stress and anxiety, which can sometimes wind up in your gut. Also, for women who notice IBS flare-ups around the time of menstruation, take evening primrose oil or black cohosh.

Vocal Cord Dysfunction

Treatment recommendations for VCD are varied. Speech therapy has been helpful for some patients, often in combination with some form of psychological counseling or psychotherapy. Hypnosis and biofeedback have been used with varying success rates. Some authors have reported benefits from sedative anxiolytic medications, and inhaled helium has been used to abort symptoms in acute attacks of laryngeal obstruction. In a report by Do-shi and Weinberger (2006), ipratropium bromide was prescribed and used successfully to prevent symptoms of exercise-induced VCD. Although many types of treatment have been recommended and attempted in pediatric patients with VCD, none has been found to be uniformly and reliably effective. However, the consensus of nearly all experts is that some form of psychotherapeutic modality, along with speech therapy and or pharmacotherapy, is most likely to be beneficial. The natural course of this syndrome and the prognosis are not known.

Self Analysis and Dreams The First Topographic Model

Although his clinical practice began to offer Freud more financial security, he continued to be fairly isolated scientifically. In 1896, Freud's father died, and beset by his own neurotic symptoms, Freud began a course of self-analysis and a close study of his dreams. Recalling that the Nancy school had considered hypnosis as a sort of sleep, Freud decided to use dreams as analogous to unconscious, hypnotic hallucinations fMakari 2008). Always needing an interlocutor for his developing ideas, Freud developed an intense friendship with Wilhelm Fliess, with whom he corresponded intimately and frequently between 1897 and 1904. Fliess was an ear, nose, and throat specialist from Berlin who came to Vienna in 1897 and had treated Freud's sinus problems and attended one of Freud's lectures on neurology. He had some odd beliefs in the primary connection between the nose and genital organs, in universal bisexuahty, and in a male and female periodicity, but he was a close listener and...

Studies on Hysteria and The Neuro Psychoses of Defence

The papers in Studies on Hysteria (Breuer and Freud 1893-1895) have exerted an enormous influence on the whole subsequent psychoanalytic enterprise. Hysterics suffer mainly from reminiscences p. 7 , the authors famously concluded. Affectively charged memories (ideas), blocked from discharge, appeared to account for the development of hysterical symptoms. Unconscious memory has remained central to psychoanalysis. The conscious recollection of previously unconscious memory stood early as a means to verify the talking cure. The problem of therapeutic action has remained more elusive, but remembering the unrememberable has been an essential component of the free association method that succeeded the talking cure under hypnosis or chimney sweeping, as Breuer 's patient Anna O. called it. Freud also referred to it, at that lime, both as the cathartic method and as abreaction.


Strong evidence supports the use of behavioral and cognitive-behavioral approaches for invasive procedures in pediatrics (Powers 1999). Cognitive-behavioral tools such as systematic desensitization and exposure can help in treating phobias that interfere with medical treatment or treatment adherence. Techniques such as guided imagery, progressive muscle relaxation, and self-hypnosis can help to alleviate anxiety related to symptoms and or medical treatment in both inpatient and outpatient contexts (Spirito and Kazak 2006). Treatments that integrate cognitive-behavioral approaches with family therapy have also been found effective in reducing symptoms of traumatic stress in adolescents with cancer and their families (Kazak et al. 2004b).

Seduction Theory

The road to this final integration has been subject to considerable debate within psychoanalytic circles, although not primarily in regard to the question of childhood etiology (Blum 2008 Lothane 2001 Masson 1984). The focus of controversy, which has waxed and waned over the history of psychoanalysis, has been the etiological role of environmental insults. Freud's first theoretical formulation, known as the seduction theory, attributed neuroses to childhood sexual trauma. Studies on Hysteria, considered by many to be the starting point of psychoanalysis (Breuer and Freud 1893-1895, p. xvi), reflected Freud's growing conviction that sexuality was the crucial factor in most nervous disorders. Hysteria and obsessive neuroses were the result of prior sexual trauma neurotic patients, under the influence of hypnotic suggestion or simply allowed to speak freely, ultimately linked the innocuous event that precipitated their symptomatology to a childhood experience of a sexual nature.


In weak paternalism the actor attempts to prevent conduct that is (1) substantially non-voluntary or (2) done without full or adequate knowledge or understanding of the consequences by the person acting also at times, the actor may temporarily intervene to determine whether an act was truly autonomous or not. An example of the first (protecting patients from non-voluntary harm) might be preventing harm to one under hypnosis or on drugs or even one who is under severe coercion. An example of the second would be giving life-saving therapy to a young child whose parents refuse such treatment an example of the third might be pushing someone from the path of an oncoming train or treating a patient who has taken an overdose of drugs but whose motives are not clear to us or whose motives are believed to be capricious, not thought out or temporary. Weak paternalism is a form of preventing persons from coming to non-understood harm. It is protecting another from the results of misinformation...

Part Three Overview

In the last few decades, modern scientific methods have been applied to old mind-body questions in efforts to understand how thoughts, expectations, and emotions influence health. This is the field of mind-body medicine, sometimes called behavioral medicine. Mind-body medicine programs have been established at the most prestigious medical centers in the United States and elsewhere. Researchers study meditation, hypnosis, biofeedback and other previously esoteric activities. They seek evidence about how the ancient wisdom linking mind and body can be documented, explained and applied within the framework of scientific knowledge and modern health care. Mind-body approaches have two characteristics in common they are systematic methods involving practice and discipline and their physiologic effects are documented and known to increase the person's ability to manage stress. Biofeedback involves the use of a machine to monitor functions such as heart rate, muscle tension, pulse and...


Video electroencephalographic monitoring has been increasingly used to investigate seizure disorders. The lack of electrical evidence in the face of a seizure makes pseudoseizure or conversion disorder a likely diagnosis. Drug-assisted interviews (e.g., amytal, Pentothal, methohexital) and hypnosis have been found to be useful during the assessment phase in some children and adolescents (Olson et al. 2008 Weller et al. 1985). Somatic symptoms may disappear transiently or even permanently following a drug-assisted interview.


Meditation is among the most accepted complementary therapies in mainstream medicine. Its origins lie in the work of Shamans, or early priests, who meditated while seeking guidance from the spiritual realm. Every major religion in the world has regarded and utilized meditation as a link to spiritual enlightenment. Hypnosis, especially self-hypnosis, may be seen as a deeper form of meditation. Both have ancient origins in magic and religion.

Formal Research Data

Barrios and Singer, in 1982, queried 48 volunteer subjects about their creative impasses, finding that most had been blocked for more than three months. The subjects were divided into four groups and randomly assigned to one of four conditions exposure to either a waking imagery or to a hypnotic induction procedure, participation in a focused and collaborative examination of their projects in which task-irrelevant thoughts were avoided, and a control group encouraged, in a nondirective fashion, to discuss their projects.

Part Four Overview

The therapies in this section may be perceived as body-mind, as opposed to mind-body, medicine. In Part Three we saw that mind-body therapies such as hypnosis, biofeedback, and meditation claim to improve physiologic and psychological well-being through manipulating or training the mind. In contrast, the therapies described in this part share the belief that health problems can be alleviated or prevented, and well-being improved, by manipulating all or parts of the body. This is accomplished through specific exercises or manual manipulation by others.

Palliative Care

Use of complementary and alternative medicine is common among children who are in active treatment or are survivors of cancer. Small clinical trials have supported the utility of acupuncture or ginger for nausea and vomiting, or hypnosis and guided imagery for pain or anxiety (Ladas et al. 2006). Although some interventions have been found to be safe and effective when used in conjunction with cancer treatment protocols, others present interaction risks. Therefore, open communication must be maintained regarding any additional treatment modalities pursued by the child or teen and family (Quimby 2007).

A worked example

A group of 18 people who found it hard to relax agreed to take part in a test of three relaxation techniques, a pill to aid restfulness, hypnosis and exercise. After a week employing the technique the participants were asked to rate their ability to relax on a 50 point scale (ranging from 0 much worse, 25 no change, through to 50 much better than before). Six people undertook the pill methods, five hypnosis and seven exercise. Is there an effect of relaxation method on their ratings Hypnosis

Muscle relaxation

They do not affect the CNS so have no effect on the level of consciousness the anaesthetist must therefore still ensure that adequate hypnosis and analgesia is present before surgery begins. Assessing the level of unconsciousness is much harder under the influence of muscle relaxants because the normal signs used to assess it, i.e. movement, vocalization, eye position and the cranial

The Fetzer Institute

Hypnosis American Society of Clinical Hypnosis Society for Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis An international organization of nurses, social workers, dentists, psychologists, psychiatrists, and other physicians who are dedicated to applying hypnosis in the clinical setting.

Arousal Disorders

Improve with age and resolve before adolescence. Treatment may be required if the associated behaviors are potentially injurious or if the behavior is excessively disruptive to the family. Good sleep hygiene with regular sleep hours and adequate amounts of nocturnal sleep are important initial recommendations. Ground floor bedrooms, window locks, and absence of sharp objects or toys on the bedroom floor are other useful measures. If injuries have occurred or appear likely to occur, treatment of the patient at bedtime with imipramine, diazepam, or clonazepam is usually effective. Hypnosis or other behavioral treatments may be helpful for some patients, and psychiatric treatment is indicated when the disorder is linked to significant psychopathology.


A carefully controlled technique in which a single intravenous drug, or a combination of oxygen and nitrous oxide, is used to reinforce hypnotic suggestion and reassurance in a way which allows dental treatment to be performed with minimal physiological and psychological stress, but which allows verbal contact with the patient to be maintained at all times. The technique must carry a margin of safety wide enough to render unintended loss of consciousness unlikely. Any technique of sedation other than as defined above would be regarded as coming within the meaning of dental general anaesthesia.

Hypnosis Mania

Hypnosis Mania

Hypnosis Mania Unmasking the Mysteries and Powers of Hypnotism will teach you effective techniques on how to tap into the subconscious, so you can intensify focus and concentration in fulfilling any goal.

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