Stop Insomnia Naturally

Natural Insomnia Program

Natural Insomnia Program is credited to Christian Goodman, who is a health expert, and he is willing to help those people suffering from insomnia for long. Many people end up suffering from the sleepless night, which ends up affecting their following day schedule. For instance, the author sleepless night has destructed his marriage and also career, but with the help of the program, he has been to overcomes this problem. Through the various studies, it shows that most of the people sleep after 45 minutes, but with the help of the program, this would be reduced to 10 to 15 minutes. The most common solution to relaxing the body is through linguistic audio, which would help the brain to relax and thus sleep effectively. Many people have used the program, and they have ended solving the problem entirely. The program is available either in the video series and e-Book and works within the shortest time possible. Continue reading...

Natural Insomnia Program Summary

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Contents: Ebook, Video Series
Author: Christian Goodman
Official Website: blueheronhealthnews.com
Price: $49.00

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My Natural Insomnia Program Review

Highly Recommended

Of all books related to the topic, I love reading this e-book because of its well-planned flow of content. Even a beginner like me can easily gain huge amount of knowledge in a short period.

My opinion on this e-book is, if you do not have this e-book in your collection, your collection is incomplete. I have no regrets for purchasing this.

The Pineal Gland and Melatonin

The pineal gland is a neuroendocrine gland that synthesizes and secretes melatonin ( M-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine). y The afferent input to the pineal gland is transmitted from the retinal photoreceptors through the SCN and sympathetic nervous system. The circadian rhythm of melatonin is controlled by the SCN but is strongly entrained by light. The two effects of light are, first, to regulate melatonin secretion in accordance with diurnal light-dark cycles and, second, to suppress melatonin if given in brief intense pulses. Melatonin secretion increases during the night, reaching a peak level between 2 00 and 4 00 am, then gradually falls during the latter part of the night, and is present at very low levels during the day. Exogenous melatonin has been used with some success to avoid jet lag and may be useful for treatment of phase-shifted sleep and sleep disturbance due to shift work. Melatonin is available through health food stores and has received strong public attention. However,...

Sleep Problems and Remedies from Ambien to Zolpidem

The diagnosis of sleep problems is based on now standardized criteria summarized both in Diagnostic and statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) and the more detailed classification of the ICSD (International Classification of Sleep Disorders) (Pressman and Orr, 1997). Unlike psychiatric diagnoses, which are typically obtained from a conversation with a psychiatrist through structured interview, sleep disorders have more objective criteria, consisting of electroencephalogram (EEG) measures of (i) sleep latency, (ii) REM latency (including REM latency minus awake), (iii) amount of SWS, (iv) amount of REM sleep, (v) eye movement density in REM sleep, and (vi) sleep efficiency (i.e., total number of minutes of sleep divided by the total time in bed). There is abundant data using these measures not only in standard nonpsychiatric sleep disorders, such as apnea, but also in many psychiatric disorders (Douglass, 1996). Objectively measured sleep problems allow...

Sleep Hygiene Training

Given the frequency with which pain and headache patients suffer comorbid sleep disorders, and the impact of reduced sleep on these disorders, sleep hygiene Table 13.12 Patient guidelines for sleep hygiene With use of these methods, patients frequently experience a significant improvement in sleep over a 2-3-week period. Patients with more refractory sleep difficulties can be referred for polysomnography or additional sleep disorder evaluation.

Sleep Disorders of Parkinson s Disease

In the past few chapters, we have been looking at the earliest predictors of PD. We have seen that an anxious personality in young adulthood significantly predicts risk for developing PD decades later. In middle age, a certain personality profile of anxiousness, harm avoidance, ambitiousness, inflexibility, punctuality, and reduced novelty seeking is also a significant predictor for later development of parkinsonism. Data uncovered in the past couple of decades have now shown that specific types of sleep disorders often develop 10-20 years before onset of motor symptoms of PD. That is, certain types of sleep dysfunction predict PD onset in some individuals about two decades later (see table 9.1). From the point of view of the self, agentic and executive control systems come progressively under attack by the disease process that culminates in PD. There is an initial genetic, or epigenetic, vulnerability that weakens the agentic self system and manifests in generalized anxiety very...

REM Sleep Behavioral Disorder

Normal REM sleep is associated with skeletal muscle atonia interrupted by irregular muscle twitches. With the RBD, the muscle atonia that accompanies REM sleep is incomplete and patients have motor automatisms in which they appear to act out their dreams. y The disorder may begin fairly abruptly, or it may be preceded by months of progressively increasing nocturnal movements, vocalizations, and disturbing dreams. Presenting complaints include nocturnal shouting, violent behavior with acting out of dreams, and injuries during sleep to the patient or bed partner. y During the episodes, which usually last a few minutes, behavior may be limited to talking, laughing, and waving of the arms or it may include punching, kicking, or jumping out of bed. Some patients have a so-called Jekyll and Hyde syndrome with quiet peaceable behavior during the day that contrasts with the swearing and violence that accompanies REM sleep. The timing and duration of episodes parallel the distribution of REM...

Sleep Disorders Associated with Degenerative Disorders of the Central Nervous System

Degenerative disorders may also cause sleep disturbance due to the effects on sleep continuity of immobility, discomfort, and nocturnal disorientation. Depression and the effects of psychoactive medications also contribute to sleep problems in many patients, but sleep disturbance is also common in unmedicated nondepressed patients. For the patient with a degenerative neurological disorder and sleep complaints, the differential diagnosis may include direct and indirect effects of the disease, medication effects, poor sleep hygiene with excessive time in bed, circadian rhythm sleep disorders, RLS and PLM disorder, sleep- related breathing disorders, sundowning, and RBD. The history is the most important element for diagnosis. The relation of the onset of sleep disturbance to the onset of the degenerative disorder helps determine whether the two are related. For patients with insomnia or disruptive nocturnal behavior, the frequency and duration of awakenings should be noted, along with...

Clinical Presentation and Diagnosis of Sleep Disorders

Patients with sleep disorders may complain about daytime symptoms. A bed partner may witness hallmark characteristics of the sleep disorder. Patients with sleep complaints should have a careful sleep history performed to assess their possible sleep disorder in order to guide diagnostic and therapeutic decisions. Daytime Symptoms and Associated Characteristics EDS is the primary symptom described by patients with sleep disorders. It is usually described as not waking up refreshed in the morning, or falling asleep or fighting the urge to sleep during the day despite a night of sleep. Other daytime characteristics of sleep disorders include Nighttime Sleep Complaints Depending on the sleep disorder, patients may exhibit or experience various nocturnal complaints during sleep hours. Some of these complaints can be uncovered by clinical history alone (e.g., hallucinations, RLS, snoring), while others can be diagnosed during sleep studies (e.g., OSA, nighttime awakenings, somnambulism,...

Sleep Disordered Breathing and Neuromuscular Diseases

Weakness of the diaphragm is the most important cause of respiratory disturbance during sleep. Diaphragmatic workload increases in NREM sleep owing in part to airway narrowing caused by decreased tone in upper airway muscles, in part to sleep-related changes in lung mechanics and respiratory muscle activation, and in part to the increased load associated with the horizontal position. With neuromuscular disorders, weakness of upper airway muscles may further reduce airway diameter, leading to increased respiratory load. Diaphragm workload increases even further during REM sleep, because accessory muscles of respiration are inhibited and the diaphragm must perform almost all of the work of breathing. The increased workload during sleep may lead to diaphragm fatigue with hypoxia, hypercapnia, acidosis-induced muscle dysfunction, and progressively worsening hypoventilation during the latter portion of the night. Patients may complain of frequent awakenings, nocturnal dyspnea or...

Insomnia Difficulty Initiating or Maintaining Sleep

Insomnia is often characterized by difficulty falling asleep, frequent nocturnal awakenings, and early-morning awakenings, which may result in daytime impairments in concentration and school or work performance. In comorbid insomnia, social factors (e.g., family difficulties, bereavement), medications (e.g., antidepressants, ft-agonists, corticosteroids, decongestants), and coexisting medical or psychiatric conditions (e.g., depression, bipolar disorder) may help to explain difficulties in initiating and maintaining sleep. Insomnia may be described as transient (a few days), short term (less than 3 weeks), or chronic (greater than 1 month) in duration.

Sleep Deprivation and Delayed Sleep Phase Syndrome

Sleep deprivation and delayed sleep-phase syndrome are common problems in adolescents for several reasons. The total sleep requirement is as much or more in adolescence as in pre-adolescence (Carskadon and Roth, 2000), but adolescents tend to receive less sleep for both biologic and cultural reasons. School-age children are more likely to be larks, preferring to wake up early even if they are up late at night. At puberty, a circadian rhythm change occurs that results in a switch from larks to owls, the preference for a late-night bedtime and late-morning awakening. This biologic tendency is encouraged by the availability of stimulating activities late into the night, whether social events, part-time jobs, or technologic advances (e.g., TV, Internet). Stimulants such as caffeine and tobacco also act to delay sleep. Despite these factors that act to delay sleep, school schedules often require the adolescent to awaken early. Thus, sleep deprivation develops. Also, jet lag-like shifts...

Sleep Problems

Sleep problems and fatigue are common in PD and may be due to medications, uncontrolled PD symptoms, or many other medical and psychological causes. The patient's bed partner can provide useful information on the patient's quality of sleep. Patients may benefit from instruction on good sleep hygiene, adjustment of therapy to control nighttime PD symptoms, or cognitive behavioral therapy. Referral to a sleep specialist may be necessary. Amantadine and selegiline may worsen insomnia selegiline and tricyclic antidepressants may worsen RBD and some antidepressants and antipsychotics may worsen RLS. Short-acting benzodiazepines (e.g., zaleplon, zolpidem), and sedating antidepressants (e.g., trazodone) are used for short periods to improve insomnia. However, benzodiazepines may increase the risk of falling. Antidepressants may worsen cognition and hypotension. Ramelteon may prove beneficial in patients with circadian sleep disorders (study in progress). Pramipexole, melatonin, and...

Insomnia

The prevalence of insomnia increases with age and is nearly 1.5 times greater in females than in males. Approximately one-third of patients older than age 65 have persistent insomnia.45 In the adult population, about 10 will experience chronic insomnia and slightly more will experience short-term insomnia. Insomnia is most frequently a symptom or manifestation of an underlying disorder (comorbid insomnia) but may occur in the absence of contributing factors (primary insomnia). Early treatment of insomnia may prevent the development ofpersistent psychophysiologic insomnia. Forty percent of patients with psychiatric conditions will have accompanying insomnia. Comorbid insomnia may be triggered by acute stress and disappears when the stress resolves. Numerous coexisting medical conditions, such as pain, thyroid ab normalities, asthma, and reflux, and medications, including selective serotonin reup-take inhibitors (SSRIs), steroids, stimulants, and -agonists, can interfere with sleep and...

Sleep deprivation

Surveys in America suggest that, over the last one hundred years, there has been a reduction of one and a half hours in the average duration of a night's sleep. While the extent of this change within different populations may be difficult to assess, it does raise questions about the effects of sleep deprivation. Up to one-third of young adults suffer from excessive daytime sleepiness, as shown by a standardized scale (such as the Epworth sleepiness scale). In middle age, at least seven per cent of people suffer from excessive daytime sleepiness related to sleep disorders, while another two per cent are affected by shift work. This may not seem a great number, but the consequences can be catastrophic, when accidents such as the Chernobyl nuclear plant disaster, the Three Mile Island nuclear accident, the Exxon Valdez oil spill and the Selby train crash occur as a result of fatigue. More recent studies have shown an association between medical misadventures and sleep deprivation. Most...

Sleep disorders

The second category is NREM sleep arousal disorders sleep drunkenness, sleep-walking and sleep terrors. In these conditions, there is a partial arousal from deep sleep the person may appear to be awake but fails to respond normally to commands. Often the person is distressed, but may be very resistant to consolation and may even become violent, with no recollection the next morning. Sleep-walking occurs in the first third of the night's sleep the person may be clumsy and injure themselves. Sleep terrors usually occur suddenly the person comes straight out of deep sleep, unlike a normal awakening, and is confused. These are associated with fear, a piercing scream, wide open eyes and a pounding heart. These attacks are frequently followed by uncontrolled running. Rapid eye movement sleep disorders form the third category of parasomnias. These include nightmares, sleep paralysis and REM sleep behaviour disorder. In a nightmare the person wakes fully oriented but aware of an experience in...

REM Sleep

The anatomical substrates for the different components of REM sleep are as follows 3. Muscle atonia, except for respiratory and ocular muscles, is a tonic event of REM sleep. Electrical stimulation studies have shown that muscle atonia occurs following activation of the medullary magnocellular reticular nucleus and the rostral nucleus pontis oralis. Muscle paralysis arises at the spinal cord level, from a centrally mediated hyperpolarization of the alpha motor neurons through the action of the inhibitory neurotransmitter glycine. 5. Rapid eye movements are another phasic event of REM sleep. Horizontal eye movements arise from burst neurons in the parabducens reticular formation in the pons, and vertical eye movements are associated with activation of the midbrain reticular formation. Positron emission tomography has shown that REM-related eye movements involve cortical areas similar to those used during wakefulness. 6. PGO activity is a phasic feature of REM sleep, generated in the...

Physiological Function of Sleep

Sleep evolves during life and changes with maturation and aging. During infancy, 16 to 18 hours a day are spent sleeping, with sleep-wake states initially occurring every 3 to 4 hours. By 6 months of age, a more prolonged sleep period occurs during the night. REM sleep time occupies as much as 80 percent of sleep time in the newborn, with a steady decrease until only approximately 20 percent of sleep is REM in the adult. Sleep spindles appear at approximately 2 years of age. During adolescence, sleep requirement increases, and the sleep pattern is one of phase delay. 8 Because school schedules do not allow for late awakening, the most common cause of daytime sleepiness in this age group is insufficient sleep. In adulthood, the need for sleep is relatively constant. With aging, sleep tends to become more fragmented, and night sleep may decrease with a corresponding increase of daytime napping. With aging, the amount of SWS decreases. Although REM sleep time remains stable with aging,...

Anxiety and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Syndromes

Anxiety is an extremely common occurrence that affects everyone at some time and is characterized by an unpleasant and unjustified sense of fear that is usually associated with autonomic symptoms including hypervigilance, palpitations, sweating, lightheadedness, hyperventilation, diarrhea, and urinary frequency as well as fatigue and insomnia. Anxiety is thought to be mediated through the limbic system, particularly the cingulate gyrus and the septal-hippocampal pathway, as well as the frontal and temporal cortex. The term anxiety disorder is used to denote significant distress and dysfunction resulting from anxiety, including panic attacks and anxiety with specific phobias. Chronic, moderately severe anxiety tends to run in families and may be associated with other anxiety disorders or depression. The differential diagnosis of anxiety states includes other psychiatric conditions such as anxious depression as well as schizophrenia, which may present as a panic attack with disordered...

Reactions resulting from fi blockade

Central nervous system effects occur with some P-blockers, including nightmares, hallucinations, insomnia and depression. These effects are more common with the lipophilic drugs (e.g. propranolol, aceb-utolol, oxprenolol and metoprolol). Gastrointestinal reactions include nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea.

Anxiety and Depression

If anxiety is severe enough to require drug therapy, a ben-zodiazepine such as lorazepam (Ativan), 0.5 to 1 mg two or three times a day, may be effective. Antidepressants such as nortriptyline (Pamelor), desipramine (Norpramin), and doxepin in low doses (25-75 mg at bedtime) have analgesic properties and can help with insomnia and agitation. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and sero-tonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) may also be effective. Mirtazapine may provide the advantage of improved sleep and appetite. Psychostimulants such as methylphenidate (Ritalin), 2.5 to 10 mg orally at 9 am and 12 noon, take effect quickly and can relieve depression and pain in some terminally ill patients, especially when prognosis is limited (Block, 2000).

Introduction About Alzheimers Disease

You may be used to taking care of yourself, a spouse, and childrenbut your dependent with Alzheimer's is much more demanding, of up to 100 percent of your attention and 100 percent of your time. You may feel you have no time to yourself or to perform such necessary everyday tasks as paying bills or even to go to the bathroom. Alzheimer's sufferers may be active both day and night, and that can cause severe stress and sleep deprivation for you. Many caregivers say their lives are in turmoil.

The Patient with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Hyperarousal symptoms include difficulty in falling or staying asleep, irritability, outbursts of anger, difficulty in concentration, overprotectiveness of oneself or others, and an exaggerated startle response. People who were abused in a bed commonly experience insomnia. People with an exaggerated startle response may jump at loud noises or if someone touches them on the back.

Study Scope And Overview

Lowing conclusion There is considerable scientific evidence that 30 hours of continuous time awake, as is permitted and common in current resident work schedules, can result in fatigue. There is also extensive research that shows that fatigue is an unsafe condition that contributes to reduced well-being for residents and increased errors and accidents (Chapters 5, 6, and 7). A detailed examination of the scientific literature on fatigue and hours of work identified prevention of sleep deprivation as a fundamental way to optimize resident work schedules and prevent or minimize fatigue, while ensuring the learning and experience that residents must achieve during their training (Chapter 7). Studies find that fatigued residents can make more errors and have more accidents, but there are simply too few data to reliably estimate the extent to which errors in performance by fatigued residents affect patients and cause them harm (Chapter 6). Evidence also suggests additional ways to improve...

Keeping Track Of Your Side Effects

* Examples dry mouth, urinating frequently, rash, acne, stomachaches, insomnia, headaches, fatigue, hair loss, problems with concentration, hand tremor, If you're not sure which medication causes which side effect, simply list each side effect you experience and put a * next to each one.

Fibromyalgia Tired of Being Sick and Tired

Myalgia (muscle pain) characterizes this often-devastating chronic rheumatic pain disorder of unknown cause. The pain is usually described as achy but a few patients tell me they can also experience burning, throbbing, stabbing, or shooting pain. To make this dish sound even more appetizing, fibromyalgia is often accompanied by side orders of chronic headaches, strange skin sensations, temporomandibular joint pain (TMJ), insomnia, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), anxiety, palpitations, fatigue, poor memory, painful menstruation, and depression. Fibromyalgia occurs mostly in women, many of whom have experienced insomnia, anxiety, stress, or depression along with the muscle aches. The symptoms are often severe enough to greatly interrupt their normal life and, in many cases, patients are unable to stay at work or continue normal household activities like cooking, childcare, or shopping.

Clinical Characteristics

Sleep disturbance is a common feature of delirium. The sleep-wake cycle may be reversed, or sleep may be fragmented and limited. Melatonin is related to the regulation of circadian rhythms, and changes in levels of melatonin may have a role in the sleep disturbance of delirium (Balan et al. 2003).

N H Uro Physio Logic Al Investigations

Deep sleep induces large, irregular 5 waves interspersed with alike activity. REM or paradoxical sleep occurs with rapid low-voltage irregular EEG activity, resembling arousal. Wakening during this period is associated with reports of dreaming. REM periods occur approximately every 50 min and occupy a total of 20 of the young adult's normal sleep time. They are associated with a marked reduction in skeletal muscle tone. Repeated awakening during REM sleep produces anxiety and irritability with an increased percentage of REM sleep in subsequent undisturbed nights.

Neurophysiological Bases Of Evoked Electrical Brain Activity

Evoked potentials are systematic changes of the EEG induced by incoming information to the brain. Every sensory stimulus elicits electrical activity that is projected by selective and specialized afferent fiber systems to the corresponding cortical sensory areas, where it induces changes of the ongoing electrical activity. These changes depend on (1) the function state of the brain (information processing is different during various sleep stages and in differ

Causal Inference Goes Beyond Covariation Tracking

Our consideration shows that, contrary to the causal mechanism view, prior knowledge of noncausality neither precludes nor refutes observation-based causal discovery. Thagard (2000) gave a striking historic illustration of this fact. Even though the stomach had been regarded as too acidic an environment for viruses to survive, a virus was inferred to be a cause of stomach ulcer. Prior causal knowledge may render a novel candidate causal relation more or less plausible but cannot rule it out definitively. Moreover, prior causal knowledge is often stochastic. Consider a situation in which one observes that insomia results whenever one drinks champagne. Now, there may be a straightforward physiological causal mechanism linking cause and effect, but it is also plausible that the relation is not causal it could easily be that drinking and insomnia are both caused by a third variable - for example, attending parties (cf. Gopnik et al., 2004).

Depression and Physical Symptom Perception

Pediatric patients with depression often have co-occurring physical symptoms, which include joint pain, limb pain, back pain, gastrointestinal problems, fatigue, weakness, and appetite changes. Chronic abdominal pain and headaches are particularly common manifestations of depression in children, although other physical symptoms may include diarrhea, insomnia, and nervousness (Croffie et al. 2000 Deda et al. 2000).

Primary Mood Disorders

Physically ill pediatric patients must meet the full DSM-IV-TR criteria for primary depressive episode for this diagnosis to be made however, no standardized approach currently exists for diagnosing depression among individuals who are physically ill. Clinicians are challenged to determine whether the classic signs and symptoms of clinical depression, such as dysphoria, anhedonia, fatigue, pain, psycho-motor retardation, anorexia, weight loss, cognitive impairment, and insomnia, represent demoralization, the physical illness itself, the effects of medical treatments, and or prolonged separations from family and friends. The presence of feelings of worth-lessness, inappropriate guilt, diminished ability to think, or suicidal thoughts is generally more consistent with the diagnosis of a primary depressive episode (Goldston et al. 1994). Youngsters at risk for a primary depression are those who have had a previous depressive episode, histories of parental depression, adverse family...

General Medical Therapy

Corticosteroids provide symptomatic improvement in most patients with increased intracranial pressure from edema. The effects of corticosteroids appear within 24 to 48 hours after the initial administration and usually peak at 1 week. Steroids produce a significant reduction in brain tumor volume and an even greater reduction in peritumoral edema, but they are not without pitfalls. The side effects of long-term glucocorticoids are well known and have the potential to cause disability greater than that produced by the tumor itself, particularly in the form of insomnia, steroid-induced (proximal) myopathy, facial adiposity, osteoporotic compression fractures, and non-dose-related risk of aseptic necrosis of the hip.25

Sleep Stress And The Restoration Of Brain And Mind Introductory Remarks

More research has been done on sleep mechanisms than any other state-control processes of the brain. We now know the locations of the major circuits that control slow-wave sleep (SWS) as well as those periodic arousals that are full of vivid emotional dreams and rapid eye movements (REM sleep). We know much about the neurophysiological changes that reflect these natural tides of the brain and the major neurochemistries that control these passages of consciousness, but rather little about the adaptive functions of sleep stages at a scientific level. as it often is to get to sleep, one usually wakes feeling emotionally less burdened. Was it simply due to the passage of time and ensuing forgetfulness, or was there an active emotional restoration process proceeding under the cover of our daily doses of unconsciousness during SWS and or altered consciousness during REM sleep No one knows for sure, but the number of intriguing, psychiatrically relevant findings that are emerging...

Restorative Effects of Sleep

As mentioned above, sleep problems are common in psychiatric disorders. Again, the most prominent example is the tendency of depressed individuals to sustain sleep poorly and to wake in the middle of the night, partly because their pituitary adrenal stress waking alarm system become active much earlier than normal (Kryger et al., 2000). Other features include an excessively rapid entry into the REM phase after sleep onset. Since sleep recruits endogenous antistress mechanisms and depression impairs quality sleep, the sleep problems of depression may tend to perpetuate ongoing problems. Although there is likely some truth to that hypothesis, such a problem would have to reside within the disruption of SWS rather than REM. A remarkable finding is that REM sleep deprivation is a fairly effective short-term antidepressant, and practically all of the pharmacological antidepressants are excellent REM sleep inhibitors (Kryger et al., 2000). One could construct a provisional explanation by...

Are sedativeshypnotics ever indicated in chronic low back pain

The role of sedative-hypnotics in chronic spine pain is controversial. Adequate restorative sleep is very important for patients with chronic spine pain. Many spine patients have sleep difficulties. The two hypnotics used most often are zolpidem (Ambien) and eszopicine (Lunesta). Limited data suggest zolpidem is somewhat more effective but also has more adverse effects, the most serious of which include sleep walking, talking, and eating, as well as some memory loss. The most serious adverse effects of eszopicine include a very bad taste in the mouth and feelings of anxiety. However, both drugs are generally preferred over the benzodiazepines, such as clonazepam or temazepam (Restoril). Long-acting drugs, such as diazepam or flurazepam (Dalmane), may accumulate with chronic use and produce cognitive impairment and depression, and there may be rebound insomnia when the drugs are discontinued.

Graduate Medical Training

1Bibliographic searches were conducted of the primary biomedical bibliographic databases, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINHAL, and Psychlnfo. The searches included articles from January 1980 to January 2008. The terms used for these searches, many in combination with each other, included resident(s), residency, internship, fatigue, sleep, sleep disorders, burnout, mood, depression, work schedule(s), work hours, 80-hour workweek, adverse events, medical errors, job satisfaction, handoffs, handovers, transitions, mortality, patient outcomes, patient safety, quality of care, medical education, graduate medical education, workload, and performance. Publications dated after January 2008 were added to the evidence base of this report as they became available or were brought to the attention of IOM staff.

What Factors Contribute To Incomplete Seizure Control Or Disabling Side Effects

Incorrect epilepsy diagnosis (e.g., misdiagnosis of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy) Failure to use first-line AEDs Failure to use adequate doses of AEDs Use of an AED that can exacerbate seizures Polytherapy with hepatic microsomal enzyme-inducing drugs (lower drug levels) Lifestyle Factors Sleep deprivation Alcohol Stress Disabling Side Effects Improper dosing (e.g., high-dose carbamazepine twice daily)

Impact on Younger Children

Children from 3 to 5 years of age who go through divorce tend to be fearful and resort to immature or aggressive behavior in the immediate aftermath. They often have difficulty falling asleep at bedtime or sleeping through the night. They might return to security blankets or old toys. Some may have lapses in toilet training. But these types of behavior rarely last for more than a few weeks or months. Most children are confused about what is happening or about why mom or dad has left. Children often try to deny that anything has changed.

The Dark Side Develops

Tim, an Iraq veteran who lost both legs in a roadside ambush where most of his buddies died, has been taking drugs for years. He's been diagnosed with Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and uses several drugs, including alcohol, to help him relax and sleep. He is distressed that he has gradually needed more and more drugs to get to sleep, even for a short time. This has added to his troubles because of the increasing cost, and searching for drugs seems to dominate his activities. He is beginning to worry that he is addicted.

Why Do Patients Sometimes Not Comply With Treatment

Epilepsy is a chronic disorder with intermittent symptoms, the treatment of which is often associated with adverse effects. Therefore, problems with compliance are expected and frequently occur. Many patients whose seizures are well controlled will experiment with reducing or discontinuing their medication. Most patients who are receiving long-term pharmacotherapy occasionally forget one or more doses. In some cases, they frequently forget certain doses, such as the midday dose (because they are at work or busy) or the bedtime dose (because they fall asleep first).

Clinical Features

The pineal gland is richly innervated with sympathetic noradrenergic input via a pathway originating in the retina and coursing through the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus and the superior cervical ganglion.31 Upon stimulation, the pineal gland converts sympathetic input into hormonal output by producing melatonin, which in turn has regulatory effects on hormones such as luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone.16 The pineal gland can be considered a neuroendocrine transducer that synchronizes hormonal release with phases of the light-dark cycle by means of its sympathetic input. However, the exact relationship between the pineal gland and human circadian rhythm remains unclear and is an active area of investigation.

What Practitioners Say It Does

Biofeedback therapies were developed to treat a wide range of symptoms and problems, including stress, urinary incontinence, sleep disorders, Raynaud's disease, migraine headache, hypertension, addictions, vascular disorders, and many others. The procedure involves focusing the mind on a biological function and mentally visualizing or picturing the desired change. This might be warming the temperature of one's hands, tightening blood vessels to eliminate headaches, or inducing other physiological events to help relieve the particular disorder. According to practitioners, biofeedback creates a greater awareness of specific body parts and their functions. With training, increased awareness of physiologic functions enables the patient to regulate these functions.

What Is The Spectrum Of Epilepsy

Epilepsy can also be described along a spectrum of categories ranging from the uncomplicated to compromised or devastated.3,6 The person with epilepsy may move from one category to another at different times throughout life because of changes in seizures, medications, developmental levels, or because of psychosocial factors. For example, the person may have, at one point in life, an uncomplicated course with well-controlled seizures, no medication side effects, and no significant psychosocial issues. The person may then switch jobs, a change that leads to sleep deprivation and more frequent seizures. Or the person may need to stop driving, a change that creates stress because of inaccessible transportation and financial hardship. The frequency and severity of the person's seizures may still be considered mild medically the person's life, however, may still be compromised by the consequences of their seizures. Care should be directed at suggesting lifestyle modifications to decrease...

Current Duty Hours and Monitoring Adherence

In 2003, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) established a maximum but not required 80-hour workweek for residents, averaged over 4 weeks. The best available national data show that first-year residents across various specialties reported working 66.6 hours a week on average during 2003-2004. Hours of work tend to be higher for residents in their first year of training, during rotations with overnight call responsibilities, and for certain specialty programs (e.g., general surgery). Lack of adherence to the ACGME limits remains an issue in some programs, particularly with respect to the limitations on the number of consecutive hours a resident can work and requirements for adequate time off for recovery sleep and personal activities. As a result, residents remain susceptible to acute and chronic sleep deprivation, despite the intent of the 2003 duty hour limits to prevent fatigue. The committee found the need to enhance monitoring of and adherence to duty...

What Treatment Options Exist For Psychosocial Problems

Triggers or precipitants of seizures, although one of the least understood aspects of epilepsy, are often easy to manage. Providers tend to regard noncompliance with therapy as the primary precipitant of seizures, followed by sleep deprivation, alcohol or drug use, and intercurrent illness. Patients, however, often cite such lifestyle variables as inactivity, exercise, irregular eating patterns, the eating of certain foods, hormonal changes, or stress, either alone or in combination, as key seizure triggers. Some providers avoid addressing the subject of triggers out of concern that patients or families will become overprotective or fearful. However, avoiding this topic encourages passivity and dependence on medications and providers. Helping patients and families to identify seizure triggers can enhance their feelings of control and responsibility. Discussing patients' lifestyles and environments with them may reveal adjustments that need to be made to minimize the risk of injury. A...

Monoamine Reuptake Inhibitors

Is produced rapidly in humans, with peak plasma levels of up to 3 times those of bupropion and a half-life of 24 hr. Therefore, orally administered bupropion is likely to lead to significant NE reuptake inhibition and relatively less DA reuptake inhibition. Bupropion increases locomotor activity and causes stereotyped behaviors in laboratory animals. In humans, it can cause restlessness, insomnia, anorexia, and psychosis. Bupropion is structurally related to phenylethylamines and unrelated to the TCAs, SSRIs, or MAOIs. It has no significant potency at binding to any known neurotransmitter receptors. Clinical studies have demonstrated that bupropion is effective in the treatment of major depressive episodes (Depression Guideline Panel, 1993). While early studies suggested that bupropion might be less likely to cause hypomania or mania in bipolar patients, subsequent studies suggested that it can cause mania and psychosis in bipolar patients, especially those with high pretreatment...

Monoamine Releasing Agents

Monoamine releasing agents are rapidly metabolized into inactive compounds and generally have relatively short half lives (4 to 8 hr). The most common side effects are insomnia, drowsiness, restlessness, nausea, weight loss, weight gain, and hypertension. At high doses these agents can cause a characteristic paranoid psychosis. These drugs are generally well tolerated in the clinical dose range (5 to 30 mg d-amphetamine day), with most patients experiencing no side effects and insomnia being the most common side effect reported.

Upon completion of this chapter the reader will be able to

Articulate the incidence and prevalence of sleep disorders, list the sequelae of undiagnosed or untreated sleep disorders, and appreciate the importance of successful treatment of sleep disorders. 2. Describe the pathophysiology and characteristic features of the sleep disorders covered in this chapter including insomnia, narcolepsy, restless legs syndrome (RLS), obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), and parasomnias. 3. Assess patient sleep complaints, conduct sleep histories, and evaluate sleep studies to recognize daytime and nighttime symptoms and characteristics of common sleep disorders. 4. Recommend and optimize appropriate sleep hygiene and nonpharmacologic therapies for the management and prevention of sleep disorders. 5. Recommend and optimize appropriate pharmacotherapy for sleep disorders. 6. Describe the components of a monitoring plan to assess safety and efficacy of pharmacotherapy for common sleep disorders. 7. Educate patients about preventive behavior, appropriate lifestyle...

Epidemiology and etiology

Approximately 50 of adults will report a sleep complaint over the course of their lives. In general, sleep disturbances increase with age, and each disorder may have gender differences. The full extent and impact of disordered sleep on our society are not known because many patients' sleep disorders remain undiagnosed. Normal sleep, by definition, is a reversible behavioral state of perceptual disengagement from and unresponsiveness to the environment. As a result, individuals with sleep disorders will exhibit or complain about consequent symptoms (e.g., daytime sleepiness), or a bed partner will observe hallmark characteristics of the sleep disorder. Insomnia, restless legs syndrome (RLS), and sleep-related breathing disorders are the most common sleep disorders.

Psychiatric Assessment

The psychiatric assessment must include particular attention to symptoms of restricting, purging, binge eating, and exercising, as well as feelings about shape and weight. Anxiety and compulsive behavior around food and weight require investigation. The presence of depressed mood, anhedonia, insomnia, decreased energy, and flattened affect must be explored given their associations with malnutrition (Franklin et al. 1948 Keys et al. 1950). Noting the time of onset of depression symptoms relative to disordered eating symptoms is important to help differentiate a primary depressive disorder from an eating disorder.

Neurophysiological and Neurochemical Mechanisms

Several studies with animals indicate that the frequency of time spent in REM sleep increases as a result of new learning, such as finding the way out of a maze. This relationship is evident in work conducted with cats, mice, rats, and newly hatched chicks. Therefore, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep may play an important role in the consolidation of such cognitive activities as learning, memory, and problem solving for both humans and other organisms that engage in REM sleep. The role of learning in REM sleep production may be connected to an underlying biological process. It has been suggested that new protein structures are being synthesized in the brain during REM sleep. Evidence indicates that the initiation of REM sleep does come from the brain stem, and then extends itself over the entire brain cortex. Because animal experiments indicate that protein synthesis is present in new learning, it has been hypothesized that it also takes place during REM sleep. Some theorists have used...

Understanding Tolerance Dependency Addiction and Withdrawal

Physical dependence and withdrawal occur with the chronic use of opioids, but they are not psychological phenomena and therefore are completely unrelated to addiction. Physical dependence means that withdrawal symptoms might occur if the drug is suddenly stopped. These symptoms include anxiety, irritability, alternating chills and hot flashes, excessive salivation, tearing eyes (lacrimation), runny nose, nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, insomnia, sweating (diaphoresis), and goose bumps (piloerection). Physical dependence is easily treated, thereby avoiding withdrawal, by gradually decreasing the daily doses of the opioid, for example, by 10 to 25 percent. Once a low daily dose of morphine (20 mg orally) is reached, the opioid can be discontinued without withdrawal symptoms occurring.

Acute stress disorder

To satisfy the criteria for the diagnosis of ASD, the individual must display acute dissociation (emotional numbing, derealization, depersonalization, reduced awareness of surroundings, dissociative amnesia), reexperiencing phenomena (intrusive memories, nightmares, flashbacks), avoidance (effortful avoidance of thoughts, conversations or places reminiscent of the trauma), and arousal symptoms (insomnia, heightened startle response, concentration deficits) (Bryant, 2001). Due to the difficulties associated with the issue of PTA and the reexperiencing of the event, some investigators (e.g., Warden et al., 1997) have proposed that the criteria for the diagnosis of PTSD be modified in the context of TBI to exclude the reexperiencing phenomena.

Nurses Responsibilities

Inpatient rehabilitation nurses monitor the vexing medical complications that accompany neurologic disease and immobility. Nurses initiate passive range of motion of paretic limbs, follow through on preventative measures for deep vein thrombosis, and turn an immobile patient every 2 hours, along with other measures to prevent pressure ulcers over bony prominences. They protect patients from being pulled across the bed, which can shear the skin, and work out ways to prevent incontinence so that moisture does not macerate the skin. Nurses also educate ancillary hospital personnel who might tug and sublux a paretic shoulder. Other responsibilities include assessments for sleep disorders such as apneic spells, respiratory function, swallowing, nutrition, and bowel and bladder function training in self-catheterization, care of skin and self-medication education about disease and personal matters such as sexuality and practice in self-care skills outside the formal therapy setting. Nurses...

Physical Therapists Responsibilities

Success in retraining during rehabilitation depends on diverse variables that include the characteristics of a task, changing contexts and environments when performing a task, psychological reinforcements, motivation, attention, memory for carry-over of what is taught, environmental distractions, anxiety, sleep deprivation, and family support. All can influence how, for example, motor and cognitive programs are built, shaped, and refined as the patient acquires a new skill. The daily practices of most neurologic PTs reveal an eclectic, problem-oriented approach.

Conscious processes are maintained by specific activating systems

The understanding of the brain mechanisms that sustain attention and consciousness was also greatly advanced by previous studies showing that electrical stimulation of the brain stem in lightly anesthetized cats produces the electroencephalographic pattern of arousal that is characteristic of attention and alertness 23 . Lesions of the same regions in monkeys also produce various coma-like states that resemble deep sleep. Some of the neural networks that control arousal and attention are embedded in what was initially known as the ascending reticular activating system, shown in Fig. 5.1 23 . In higher animals, including humans, this neuronal network reaches the intralaminar

Experiences require binding for integration into consciousness

As indicated previously, neurologists and neurosurgeons discovered that small tumors or cysts in the base of the brain or in the pituitary gland produced progressive loss of consciousness and coma, which in some cases were reversible after an operation. Additional studies made it clear that the mechanisms of wakefulness, sleep, and maintenance of consciousness take place through synchronization of an activating system that includes multiple brain regions.6 We now know that wakefulness is associated with a low-amplitude, high-frequency electroencephalogram, whereas deep sleep (physiological unconsciousness) is characterized by high-amplitude, low-frequency waves 43, 45, 49 . In addition, the level of consciousness during anesthesia can be accurately predicted by sophisticated analysis of the electroencephalogram 50 .

Epidural Steroid Injections

Complications of epidural injections include generic considerations for any invasive procedure (local tissue trauma, bruising, pain, infection) as well as those specific for trauma to the local spinal tissues, medication or steroid related side effects, and those associated with x-ray exposure during fluoroscopy. Minor complications including dural puncture with subsequent spinal headache, increased pain, elevated blood sugar level or blood pressure, sympathetic mediated symptoms such as flushing or vasovagal response and acute insomnia have been described and occur infrequently. Botwin et al reported an overall complication rate during fluoroscopically guided ESIs as occurring in less than 10 for lumbar injections13 and approaching 17 for cervical ESIs.14 Caudal injections had a rate of minor complications of 15.6 ,15 and for the thoracic spine, a 20.5 rate was reported.16 Intravascular needle placement has been noted in about 10 to 20 of lumbar injections.17 Subarachnoid needle...

Client Health And Stress Management

Replacing negative behaviors (e.g., poor nutrition, sleep deprivation, limited exercise, and social isolation) with positive ones (e.g., healthy diet, regular exercise, and healthy social involvements) is essential in all treatment programs. Assisting addicted clients in developing a healthy lifestyle goes a long way in controlling their impulses to take psychoactive drugs. An insomniac might consider one of these alternatives to taking sleeping aids Biochemical alternatives An herbal sleep remedy such as melatonin, warm milk, acupuncture, avoiding caffeine drinks in the evenings

From the ancient Greeks to recent times

About 900 bce, Homer described a chieftain, Asclepius, who came to be seen as a god of healing. People were brought to his temples in the hope that he might visit them in their sleep and cure them. It took about another five hundred years for a rational school of philosophy to develop and for people to start to think more logically about sleep. Alcm on, a Greek medical writer and philosopher-scientist, living around 450 bce, was one of the first. He proposed that sleep was caused by blood flowing away from the surface of the body into large vessels and that we awake when it flows back into the body again. His ideas seem to have been taken up and modified by Hippocrates and Aristotle. Hippocrates developed a theory of the benefit or harm of sleep by observing its medical effects. He noticed that both excessive sleepiness and insomnia were undesirable and that people who were ill either slept a lot or were tired. On the other hand, sleep could restore the ill to health. Aristotle...

Diagnosis and Disability

For example, although depression is widely acknowledged to be a major source of disability (Jans et al. 2004 Murray and Lopez 1996), not all individuals with depression experience symptoms that cause functional impairment. Symptoms associated with depression, such as psychomotor retardation, insomnia, and impaired memory and concentration, can be disabling. However, depression can be experienced as an uncomfortable or distressing mood state whose symptoms do not create impairment that significantly interferes with work function (Gold and Shuman 2009).

The neuronal origin of sleep the sleep circuit

Current thinking is that we have specific neural circuits that keep us awake and if these are switched off we fall asleep. These neurons are in the reticular activating system in the brainstem. Signals from this system feed into the thalamus, which combines them with the sensory information it is receiving and relays it all to the cortex. The system uses a neurotransmitter, glutamate, which tends to activate nerves and therefore acts like a gate, allowing the passage of sensations to the thalamus and thence to the cortex. If this gate closes, we become insensible to the outside world, which is why we can sleep through noise or movement. There is a second wakefulness system in the hypothalamus, which is part of the autonomic nervous system and therefore responsible for regulating heart rate, breathing, sweating and other automatic processes. Signals spread from here When we are awake, our neurons fire in an organized, yet unpredictable, way. An EEG reflects this, showing apparently...

Assessment of Disability

Nevertheless, not every psychiatric symptom will cause work-related impairment in every individual, and not every individual who has a psychiatric symptom, or even a psychiatric disorder, will necessarily experience work impairment or disability. Someone suffering insomnia may have impaired judgment if his or her job involves flying planes or carrying a weapon, he or she may be functionally disabled, even if other prominent symptoms of depression are not present. Conversely, a sales representative or administrative assistant experiencing insomnia may be able to function adequately, even if not at the highest level of productivity, without creating undue risk to himself or herself or the public.

Changes in Mental Status

Consults are frequently initiated regarding patients' mental status changes. Fluctuations in level of consciousness and orientation, affective dysregulation, and other cognitive and perceptual disturbances have been collectively coined ICU psychosis or ICU syndrome and were once thought to be caused by environmental factors specific to critical care settings (e.g., Kleck 1984). Critical care patients' increased vulnerability to mental status changes is now recognized as likely due to a confluence of factors related to the patients' underlying illness and drugs and other treatments rather than due to an exclusively environmental etiology. Environmental factors specific to the ICU that threaten patients' mental status, in interaction with other biological factors, include prolonged social isolation, unfamiliar surroundings, sleep deprivation and diurnal rhythm disruptions, and patient immobilization (Martini 2005). Such mental status changes are conceptualized within the framework of...

Conceptual Models and Treatment Approaches

Various other general principles can be of value when implementing psychosocial treatments and interventions with critically ill children. As in other settings, crucial steps in tailoring and implementing appropriate interventions include clarification of the referral question or concern, careful assessment incorporating multiple sources of information, and development of a working formulation (Shaw and DeMaso 2006). The consultant must be aware of sociocultural factors that may influence health-related beliefs, perceptions, and practices and help inform interventions (Stern et al. 1998). A biopsy-chosocial approach to case conceptualization is advised, with careful consideration of contextual factors related to critical illness and or its treatment (e.g., pain, sleep deprivation, medications) that may impact mental status. Multimodal treatments, including psychoeducation, psychopharmacological treatment, supportive therapy, cognitive-behavioral approaches, and play therapy, may be...

Prevalence and incidence of secondary affective disorders including demographic and psychiatric correlates

Varney, Martzke, and Roberts (1987) used a sample of 120 individuals diagnosed using the DSM-III, ranging in duration of coma from a few minutes to 8 days, who were interviewed at least two years (mean 3.4 years, range 2 to 8 years) following the injury. Ninety-two of the 120 (77 ) reported at least 6 of a list of depressive symptoms (i.e., poor memory or concentration 96 anergia 96 low libido 91 indifference 90 irritability 87 insomnia 87 dysphoria 85 anorexia 77 crying spells 67 suicidal ideation 51 social withdrawal 37 ) in contrast to a control group of back-injured subjects only 38 (23 60) of whom reported 6 symptoms. Of the subjects with depression, 46 (42 92) reported that their depressive symptoms did not commence until at least six months after the injury (an observation reported by the investigators and verified by the families of origin). Shukla, Cook, Mukherjee, Godwin, and Miller (1987) used the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Lifetime Version (SADS-L)...

Loss of Arousal Regulation

Elementary self-regulation involves an interconnected collection of neural patterns that maintain bodily processes and that represent, moment by moment, the state of the organism (Damasio, 1999). The immediate response to a traumatic experience involves dysregulation of arousal, with (a) exaggerated startle response, (b) over- or under-aroused physiological and emotional responses, (c) difficulty falling or staying asleep, and (d) dysregulation of eating, with lack of attention to needs for food and liquid. In people who develop PTSD, this pattern of disordered arousal persists.

Clinical Manifestations and Pathology

Convulsive or spasmodic ergotism affects the central nervous system, causing areas of degeneration in the spinal cord. Early German accounts mentioned tingling and mortification in the fingers and toes, with occasional extension to the rest of the body, and vomiting, diarrhea, intense hunger, anxiety, unrest, headache, vertigo, noises in the ear, stupor, and insomnia as symptoms. Often the limbs became stiff, accompanied by convulsive contractions of the muscles which led to staggering and awkward movements, often aggravated by being touched. Although many victims recovered, symptoms sometimes remained for long periods, resulting in permanent stiffness of the joints, muscular weakness, optic disorders, and occasional imbecility. In the 1930s, Ralph Stockman demonstrated that convulsive ergotism was caused by poisons (phytates) normally present in rye and other grains which, unless broken down in the bowel, were absorbed, creating lesions in the nervous system.

Individual Psychotherapy

Psychotherapy is the treatment modality unique to mental health clinicians. Within its framework, the child seeks to integrate the facets of his or her life. Through words, art, and play, the child conveys the experience of living with the threat of loss and transforms the essence of his or her reality into expression. Self-help techniques, such as relaxation, guided imagery, and hypnosis, may be integrated into the psychotherapy to reduce symptoms of nausea, fatigue, insomnia, and pain (Kazak 2005 Kazak et al. 1996 Kersun and Shemesh 2007 Steif and Heiligenstein 1989). These techniques are not restricted to psychotherapeutic intervention and may be employed by other disciplines trained in their methodology.

Impact of Duty Hours on Resident Well Being

Workers' schedules and lengthy work hours can affect their safety and psychological, social, and physical well-being. Residents are no exception. A review by Caruso assessing the impact of long work hours on the general U.S. worker population revealed that working 50 hours or more a week can have detrimental effects on workers, placing them at risk for sleep deprivation or fatigue, declines in alertness or concentration, depression, poorer general health (including weight gain, cardiovascular decline, and muscular pain), and injuries (Caruso, 2006). Resident physicians, who typically work well over 50 hours a week, may therefore be at risk for these negative effects on their health and well-being, although there may be some counterbalancing effect in pursuing their desired career goal and working in a collegial environment. Residents may thrive on and enjoy the extensive and intensive training paramount to acquiring the necessary skills to become a physician, but the time and workload...

Hemicrania Continua HC Treatment of Hemicrania Continua

Clearly, some patients cannot tolerate the central nervous, gastric, or renal side effects of this harsh drug additionally there are patients, such as those with diabetes, renal and or hepatic dysfunction, those on anticoagulation, or those with bleeding issues, who will never be able to take the medication. For these patients there are rays of hope in case reports showing benefit from high-dose melatonin, gabapentin, topiramate, and celecoxib. Ipsilateral occipital nerve stimulation and greater occipital nerve blocks are other approaches described as sometimes helpful. Greater occipital nerve block is easily performed and should always be considered early, in the hope it will induce long lasting relief.

Naps are essential for every twoyearold How can I accommodate this basic need in a treatment program that is

In most of the cases I work with, parents decide that therapy is a priority over naptime. In the beginning, it can be difficult because your child may get irritable and may even fall asleep during a treatment session (this happened to Jake initially). But parents often find that by changing their children's schedules so that bedtime is earlier and the morning routine more disciplined, their children are able to adjust to new, more demanding schedules with few problems.

Contributors to Error in the Training Environment

Uncertainty surrounds the impact of the 2003 reduction of resident duty hours on patient safety (adverse patient outcomes) and whether further adjustments to duty hours might diminish unsafe conditions (e.g., sleep deprivation) and reduce errors. The few national studies that have attempted to capture the impact of duty hour reform show no evidence of harm as measured by mortality rates. A well-designed randomized trial in two intensive care units of a single institution found a reduction in rates of serious medical error committed by first-year residents when their extended duty periods (up to 30 hours) were reduced to 16 hours, total weekly work hours were also reduced, and they obtained more sleep. The study found no statistically significant difference in unit-wide preventable adverse events or patient mortality between the reduced duty hour and standard hours. Nor was it able to isolate the effect of the shorter shift from reduced total workweek hours, increased sleep, having an...

Strategies to Reduce Fatigue Risk in Resident Work Schedules

The scientific literature makes clear that risks of fatigue-related errors and accidents derive from multiple interacting variables of work and sleep. This chapter discusses the literature on sleep and human performance and recommends specific adjustments to the current Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) resident duty hours to enhance the prevention and mitigation of resident fatigue as an unsafe condition, thereby improving performance and the safety of both patients and residents. The major rationales for the recommendations are the following (1) work duration should be limited because human performance degrades after 16 hours of wakefulness whether one is working or not (2) sufficient time for sleep needs to be incorporated into daily and weekly work schedules to prevent acute and chronic sleep deprivation, respectively, and to allow recovery from accumulated sleep debt and (3) when extended duty periods are considered an essential aspect of resident...

Major Depression Definition

The DSM-III diagnosis of major depression requires a persistent period of dyspho-ric mood or loss of interest or pleasure and at least two weeks of four other symptoms, which may include significant weight loss or gain, appetite disturbance, insomnia or hypersomnia, psychomotor agitation or retardation, fatigue or loss of energy, feelings of worthlessness, inappropriate guilt, impaired concentration, recurrent suicidal ideas or a suicide attempt (APA, 1980). The DSM-III-R criteria are similar, but specify a two-week period of at least five symptoms, one of which must be depressed mood or loss of interest or pleasure (APA, 1987).

Different types of memory and learning are processed and stored in functionally distinct brain regions

Patients with bilateral removal of the hippocampus, such as Penfield's patient H.M., have intact long-term memory for events that occurred before the operation, but they lose the capacity to transfer their short-term (declarative) memory into long-term storage. These patients can remember names or events for seconds to a few minutes, but once they are distracted, they can never recollect what they apparently knew a few minutes earlier. They present the symptoms of a severe Alzheimer's disease. The hippocampal formation is now well established as being essential for consolidating declarative short-term into long-term memory, even though the precise mechanisms are not fully known. Interestingly, the same hippocampal cells active during the memory-learning period are also active during sleep. This re-playing of neuronal activity in hippocampal circuits during sleep is thought to be involved in memory consolidation in rats 14 . The deprivation of REM sleep in humans also has a negative...

Part with Postpartum Depression

Postpartum depression affects approximately 10-20 percent of new mothers, and usually appears between two to eight weeks after delivery. This is different from postpartum blues (sadness, anxiety, insomnia, and weepiness) that appear within several days of delivery and go away in 10-12 days. The blues are common, affecting between 50 and 80 percent of all new mothers.

Oxycontin and Other Opiates

Because of the medical importance of this group of compounds, there are many different opiates produced and made available for treating humans. Heroin is one of the most dangerous opiates. It is quickly converted to its active metabolite and gets into the brain rapidly. There is a period of intense euphoria followed by feelings of tranquility. Withdrawal produces a craving for the drug, anxiety, insomnia, irritability, cramps and muscle aches. Withdrawal can last five to ten days and is unpleasant, although it is usually not life threatening. Overdose is a danger and if death occurs, it is often due to

Malingered Conditions

Mental health clinicians should bear in mind the malingered conditions that they may encounter in forensic and nonforensic settings. Literature reviews demonstrate that malingered conditions include dissociative identity disorder (McConville and LeBourgeois 2008), psychosis (Greenfield 1987), suicidally (Rissmiller et al. 1999), and PTSD (Frueh et al. 1997). Malingered conditions that cross the spectrum of psychiatry and neurology that have been reported include acute dystonia (Rubinstein 1978), amnesia (Bolan et al. 2002), chronic pain (Greve et al. 2009), cognitive deficits (Iverson and Binder 2000 Sweet 1999), dementia (Gittelman 1998), seizure (DeToledo 2001), and sleep disorder (Mahowald et al. 1992). Additionally, there are now several case reports documenting malingering by proxy behaviors, in which caretakers induce or report illness in a dependent in order to reap some external incentive for example, disability payments or controlled substances for the presumed benefit of the...

Paying Attention to the Audience

Although you should be sensitive to the mood of the entire audience, you should not overreact to the reaction of any one individual. For instance, you might encounter an audience member whose countenance is so angry that it frightens you to the point of distraction. In such cases, it is best not to look directly at that person. Perhaps that person has had an awful day and the expression of anger is not for you, but for someone else. Other times, you might have an audience member who is going to fall asleep on you no matter how well you present. In such cases, let the person sleep and focus on the rest of the audience. Perhaps that person has a new baby, and for that person your presentation is going to be the only quiet hour of the day.

Immediate postoperative care

Optimal immediate postoperative management involves appropriate analgesia and nursing. Sound nursing measures also have a profound impact on reducing the level of postoperative discomfort and pain. Giving the animal attention at regular intervals helps reduce the distress associated with pain and the unfamiliar environment, otherwise a cycle of pain distress sleeplessness can develop.

Treatment Interventions

More data have been reported on psychothera-peutic interventions in adults with CKD. Sleep disturbance, for example, is a commonly reported complaint of adults receiving dialysis (Iliescu et al. 2004 Novak et al. 2006). In a randomized, controlled prospective study, 24 adults who were undergoing peritoneal dialysis and who had insomnia were given a 4-week trial intervention with cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) (Chen et al. 2008). Results from the study included improvements in sleep quality and decreased daytime fatigue. In another investigation, a group CBT intervention was used to enhance adherence to fluid restriction in a group of adults receiving hemodialysis (Sharp et al. 2005). During the 4-week treatment, no significant improvement was seen in the immediate-treatment group when compared to a delayed-treatment group. However, the group receiving immediate treatment did demonstrate significant improvements at a 10-week follow-up assessment.

Had Enough Let Go of Stress

Oriental nutritional recommendations borrow much from the herbal culture. Both, to be the most effective, are individually prescribed by a qualified practitioner that examines and balances your whole system. If you had been experiencing chronic stress that resulted in erratic moods, insomnia that began after early waking, a red- to scarlet-tipped tongue, and increased thirst, an Oriental Medical diagnosis of deficient

Who should be considered for treatment

As to the objective signs of relative androgen deficiency, although a decrease of muscle mass and strength and a concomitant increase in central body fat and osteoporosis can most easily be objectified, they are not specific signs. Decreased libido and sexual desire, loss of memory, difficulty in concentration, forgetfulness, insomnia, irritability, depressed mood as well as decreased sense of well-being, are rather subjective feelings or impressions, less easily objectified and certainly difficult to differentiate from hormone-independent aging. Complaints of excessive sweating are not uncommon, whereas true hot flushes do occur in elderly men, although they are mainly prevalent in severe acquired hypogonadism such as under hormonal treatment for prostate cancer.

Depression Checklist Are You at Risk

> Insomnia, oversleeping, or early morning waking > Insomnia, fatigue, headache, stomachache, and dizziness One of the most common diagnoses in traditional Oriental Medicine is heart-blood deficiency As you can tell by the name, this condition deals with issues concerning the heart organ or channel. These issues are usually emotional. Blood deficiency implies an energetic weakness. This usually presents itself as palpitations, insomnia, poor memory, dizziness, jumpiness, dull complexion, confusion, and lack of concentration.

Evidence Based Treatment

Psychostimulants are often used to treat ADHD in children with HIV, although dosing is not well established and efficacy is variable. Often, higher dosages of stimulants are required to achieve scholastic benefit but need to be balanced against appetite loss, growth retardation, and insomnia, which are often significant issues for children with HIV. Clonidine, bupropion, and atomoxetine use in HIVpositive youth has also been described (Cesena et al. 1995 Pao and Wiener 2008). Treatment for behavioral disorders such as repetitive and persistent patterns of aggressive behaviors, serious violations of rules, and destruction of property (American Psy For treatment of depression in HIV-positive youth, current treatment guidelines for the management of depression in children can be followed. Antidepressants, including tricyclic antidepressants as well as SSRIs and bupropion, have been used empirically, and off label in many cases, in youth with HIV (Pao and Wiener 2008). There is no...

Oriental Medicine Manages the Immune System

Many of the secondary infections and symptoms of HIV AIDS can be treated with acupuncture and herbs. About 75 percent of gastrointestinal conditions such as appetite, digestion, bowel problems, and weight stabilizations, show improvement patients also report reductions in pain, fevers, night sweats, sore throats, and sleep disorders.

Specific Psychopharmacologic Considerations

The mood stabilizers and atypical antipsychotics are extremely useful as augmenting medications added to an adequate antidepressant dose that is not fully effective. Patients need not be psychotic or manic to benefit from the addition of these agents. The atypical antipsychotics are quite useful for nonpsychotic patients in severe depressive and anxiety states, with insomnia and agitation that do not immediately respond to antidepressants (Kaplan, 2000). These medications carry a much smaller risk of extrapyramidal motor system side effects or tardive dyskinesia than do the conventional antipsychotics since they occupy the dopamine receptors only transiently. The risk of tardive dyskinesia is estimated to be approximately 0.3 percent for these atypical agents. Sedation can be a significant initial side effect of quetiapine or olanzapine, though patients frequently develop tolerance to this effect. Weight gain occurs in most patients given olanzapine or mirtazapine, which can...

These letters appear before rmab which stands for monoclonal antibody

Ment model, with a terminal half-life of 19 to 28 days. Severe congestive heart failure may occur with concurrent anthracycline administration. Cardiac toxicity may be seen when the drug is administered months after anthracycline administration, so patients must be counseled on the signs and symptoms of heart failure. Other side effects include hypersensitivity reactions, fever, diarrhea, infections, chills, cough, headache, rash, and insomnia.

Patientreported outcomes and Cochrane reviews

Systematic review authors will select PROs for inclusion depending on the scope and aims of their review. PROs are most important when externally observable patient-important outcomes are unavailable, or rare. For many conditions, including pain, functional disorders, sexual dysfunction and insomnia, no satisfactory biological measures are available. Conditions in which outcomes are known only to the patients themselves, such as pain intensity and emotions, demand PROs as primary outcomes. PROs are also important when observable outcomes are available, because they reflect directly what is important to patients.

Acu Points to Relieve the Fatigue

Tiredness that is worse at midday, palpitation, poor memory, insomnia, dizziness, and dream-disturbed sleep. The conditions we've just discussed take consistent effort and follow-through to achieve desirable results. I believe that Oriental Medicine can make a significant contribution to your health, and would also urge you to incorporate an entire health team to bring the best possible care during the course of your treatments. But don't fall asleep on me now because we talk about insomnia, weight loss, and other tricky conditions in the next chapter Insomnia Cruisin' for a Snoozin' There's nothing more refreshing than to greet the day after a good night's sleep. It's equally frustrating to be part of the estimated one-third of Americans (twice as many women than men) that suffer from some form of insomnia. Seniors make up about 50 percent of all those who suffer from sleep disorders, but I'm seeing a growing number of adolescents and adults who complain...

Acu Points to Soothe You to Sleep

Oriental Medicine takes a look at your overall health patterns and factors them into your sleep disorder. We first separate the sleep problems difficulty falling asleep (deficient blood condition), staying asleep (deficient yin condition), or both (deficient blood and yin). Sleep position is examined as well. Watch your intake of alcohol and narcotics. Alcohol can help you relax and fall asleep, but it often causes you to wake up in the middle of the night Fifty percent of people who regularly take sleeping pills worsen their insomnia. Chronic sleeping pill users are 50 percent more likely to die in automobile accidents than nonusers. Locate Yintang (Seal Hall) in between your eyebrows. Use your index fingers to gently press the point for 30 seconds while closing your eyes and breathing deeply. Repeat three to five times. Your free hand can cradle your elbow to keep your pressing arm relaxed if you choose to press with only one finger. This acu-point releases heat and wind and is used...

Complications of Surgery

Hypothalamic injury leads to debilitating consequences such as obesity, disorders of temperature regulation, somnolence, cardiorespiratory instability, and diabetes insipidus. Following surgery, up to 40 of patients experience debilitating weight gain of 12 to 20 kg year, which persist without plateau. Suppression of insulin secretion has been shown to be effective in preventing or reversing this complication.42 Minor surgical trauma to the hypothalamus can also cause sleep disorders, memory problems, apathy, and appetite changes.7,61

Roadblock 1 No Goals or Steps Identified Due to Lack of Experience in Thinking in Terms of Goals and Behaviors

To allow each of the members to speak about his or her own experience in setting goals. In Stage I, the therapist simply asks the group to talk about an area in their lives they would like to change. This strategy often will lead to group member statements, such as they would like to have improved symp-, resolve sleep problems, or increase their effectiveness cop-

Pathophysiology Of Mitral Stenosis

The elevated left atrial pressure transmitted to the pulmonary capillary bed will cause symptoms of dyspnea, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea, and even orthopnea (Table 3). The latter may be atypical, for these patients will have a raised left atrial pressure most of the time when the mitral obstruction is significant. Therefore, they may never feel comfortable enough to go to sleep once they are woken up from sleep because of dyspnea, and furthermore they may wake up with dyspneic sensation more than once in a night. These features are not seen in classical paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea because of left ventricular failure where patients usually are able to fall asleep again after they have been up on their feet or up for a while in a recumbent position with their feet dangling. Furthermore, the classical paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea does not occur more than once in a night.

Interpretation or Meaning of the Stressor

When listening for the precipitant of a crisis, it is important to understand the meaning of even minor stressors in the context of a patient's life. The robbery in Melinda's community had a personalized meaning to her that reawakened old wounds and PTSD symptoms, fueling a major emotional crisis. The following sequence of events, filtered through the lens of Melinda's select past personal experiences, created this current crisis. On learning of a local robbery, Melinda perceived a threat to her home and safety. This precipitant inundated her with traumatic memories of the hurricane and its aftereffects, which destroyed her home and her relationship. She felt anxious, insecure, and emotionally numb, and she was newly avoiding crowded places. The turmoil of her earlier relationship was being reenacted in her current marriage. Her nightmares interrupted her sleep, and she began using alcohol to fall asleep and quell her anxiety. Her alcohol abuse contributed to insomnia and feelings of...

Medications for Symptoms of Psychiatric Disorders

During the acute crisis or immediate posttraumatic state, insomnia or other sleep disturbances may greatly affect coping. Use of a nonbenzodiazepine such as Zolpidem, zaleplon, or eszopiclone can be considered as first-line pharmacologic treatment for acute sleep disturbances. The use of benzodiazepines for sleep or anxiety in the acute postcrisis state is questionable, with little support for efficacy and

Partial Focal Seizures

Complex partial seizures must be differentiated from typical and atypical absences. Psychogenic seizures, fugue states, panic attacks, inattention, sleep disorders, syncope, transient global amnesia, metabolic derangements, drug and alcohol ingestion, migraine, transient ischemic attacks, and fluctuations in mental status in patients with dementia should also be considered in the evaluation of patients with transient alterations in consciousness.

The Divorce and Final Years

Sara had experienced depressions throughout her life. In later years she lost weight. She suffered from insomnia, although during her creative periods she would work on her poems during the night, and she also had trouble getting up in the mornings, typical symptoms of depression. She took Veronal as a sleeping tablet. Her moods varied with the seasons. Her depressions were worse in winter, and she hated the cold weather since it brought on her respiratory illnesses. As she grew older, external events led to an intensification of her depression (such as the marital problems of her friends, the Untermeyers, and the suicide of their son).

Micro and Nanotechnology and the Aging Spine

In the United States by the year 2000, approximately 20 of all Americans were older than 65. Twelve percent were older than 85. With an aging population, a higher proportion of the elderly seek orthopedic treatment, due to the prevalence of musculoskeletal complaints. Currently, 25 of orthopedic patients are 65 and older. The Census Bureau projects that the 65 and older population will double from 33 million to 65 million by 2030, while the younger age groups will remain the same. Physicians will be faced with a greater number of individuals who are experiencing intellectual failure, immobility, instability, incontinence, insomnia, degenerative musculo-skeletal disorders, and iatrogenic problems.

Clinical Use and Adverse Effects of Specific Antiepileptic Drugs

Felbamate was approved in the United States in 1993 for the treatment of partial seizures in adults and as adjunctive therapy in children with the Lennox-Gastaut's syndrome. Just over 1 year later, the FDA recommended limiting its use due to its association with aplastic anemia. Currently, the FDA recommends that felbamate be used only in situations in which the risk of seizures exceeds the risks of the drug. As of December, 1995, there have been 31 cases of aplastic anemia reported, including 10 fatalities, and numerous cases of hepatitis. The mechanism of action of felbamate is unknown, although it likely has multiple actions including blockade of voltage-gated Na+ channels, potentiation of GABA transmission, and inhibition of excitatory neurotransmission through interaction with the NMDA receptor. Felbamate is effective against partial and generalized seizures, including absences. Common adverse effects include insomnia, weight loss, nausea, anorexia, dizziness, and lethargy....

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