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Ancient Secrets of Kings

Ancient secrets of kings is a book written to bring success, money, and satisfaction in your life. It explains the reasons for the success of great ancient leaders and nations. It is based on the factual experience of the author. He talks about the three great men ever passed which are Emperor Qin Shi Huang of ancient China, The Fourth Dynasty Pharaoh Khufu of ancient Egypt, and King Solomon of ancient Israel. They built great civilizations which had incredible technology according to their times. These three pillars are The Great Wall in Beijing, China, The Pyramid of Giza in Cairo, Egypt, and The Temple of Solomon in Jerusalem, Israel. To reveal those mysteries he went to visit those places on his own. After visiting them he came to an analyzation that these leaders had the talent in them and deserved to be at that place, these civilizations followed some great rules which made them prior to all. China is a pillar of success, which is achieved by a discipline in them. Egypt is a pillar of wealth because they knew how to use energy in the right way and Israel is a pillar of peace which is more important than others. Read more here...

Ancient Secrets of Kings Summary


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Intelligence Testing History

Major Intelligence Scales Lewis Terman of Stanford University built on Binet and Simon's work in Europe and constructed the earliest version of what has come to be called the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales (Terman & Merrill, 1937, 1973 Thorndike, Hagen, & Sattler, 1986). For years, the Stanford-Binet test was the standard for intelligence tests, and it is still

Intelligence Tests

In forensic assessments, the most common cognitive tests are intelligence tests. These measure past learning, verbal skills, abstract reasoning, processing speed (how fast a person can think through a problem), perceptual organization, and working memory (how well a person can hold and manipulate information in mind while solving a problem). Intelligence tests are regularly updated and are designed to reflect a normal or bell-shaped dis The gold standards in IQ tests for forensic work are the Wechsler (Wechsler 1997) series and the Stanford-Binet (Roid 2002) tests. They have established psychometric properties, detailed scoring, procedural manuals, and norms. The Wechsler series includes tests for very young children, adolescents, and adults, as well as a short form for IQ assessment. The Wechsler and Stanford-Binet tests have been translated into Spanish. There are also some French versions. With cognitive tests, the verbal subtests are more culture-bound, that is, affected by...

Individual Differences

Of course, findings such as these present a rather puzzling quandary If reduced LI is associated with both psychosis and creative achievement, what distinguishes reduced-LI individuals who produce great creative works from those who degenerate into madness Cutting-edge research has suggested that at least one critical moderating factor may be intelligence. Eminent creative achievement is significantly more likely among individuals with both reduced LI and higher IQ scores. Although the exact reason for this interaction remains poorly understood, it has been speculated that high IQ may allow individuals to adaptively control how thoughts that unintentionally gain access to awareness are utilized. Given this enhanced ability to regulate how the contents of consciousness are employed, high IQ individuals may benefit from access to irrelevant details as these may contribute to a larger base of material from which to generate innovative alternatives. Individuals with higher IQ may also be...

Estimating Risk to Relatives

Fortunately, there are several statistical approaches that can handle this problem. The most straightforward way to compute an accurate significance level is to use the proportion of probands having at least one ill relative as the index of familiaty. Thus, the unit of analysis becomes the proband. Since the sampling design can assure that the probands are statistically independent, we can proceed with traditional statistics (e.g., the chi-square test, logistic regression). If we are assessing a quantitative outcome (e.g., the intelligence scores among siblings of probands), we can use the mean of all relatives from a class (e.g., compute the mean intelligence score for each sibship). These means can then be analyzed with traditional statistics (if other assumptions are not violated).

What is the Relationship of Creativity to Intelligence

The other, with the result that creativity and intelligence do not correlate although highly facilitatory for creativity, flexibility, and risk taking may even detract from performance on an intelligence test. Insight, which seems to be involved in creativity, may be favorable for intelligence without being absolutely necessary for obtaining a high IQ. Intrinsic motivation is favorable for the acquisition of knowledge, but it is possible to operate rapidly, accurately, and logically without it, whereas it is believed to be particularly helpful for creativity. To the extent that they share facets, creativity and intelligence are correlated, to the extent that they depend on different facets or give greater or lesser weight to particular facets, they are separate. Summing up, it can be said that creativity and intelligence are neither identical nor completely different.

Influences of Directional Outcome Motivation

One type of evidence for the role of motivation in self-serving attributions is that, independent of expectancies from prior success or failure, the more personally important a success is in any given situation, the stronger is the tendency to claim responsibility for this success but to deny responsibility for failure (Miller, 1976). Another type of evidence is that people's attributions become increasingly self-serving when success or failure feedback is experienced as highly arousing. For instance, Gollwitzer, Earle, and Stephan (1982) had participants first complete an intelligence test, then vigorously

The Problem of Misclassification

Diana was a class action suit filed in California on behalf of nine Mexican American children placed in classes for the educable mentally retarded (EMR) on the basis of Stanford-Binet (LM) or WISC IQ scores. Diana, one of the plaintiffs, came from a Spanish-speaking family and was placed in an EMR classroom based on an IQ score of 30. When she was later retested in Spanish and English by a bilingual psychologist, she scored 49 points higher on the same test and no longer qualified for special class placement (Bersoff & Ysseldyke, 1977). The consent decree in Diana required children be assessed in their primary language or with sections of tests that do not depend on knowledge of English (Reschly, 1979). presented during this phase. In his lengthy opinion, Judge Peckham characterized the EMR classes as inferior and dead-end. Based on his analysis of the expert testimony, he found IQ tests to be racially and culturally discriminatory. He ruled that the school failed to show that IQ...

Empirical Work on Intelligence and Creativity

With psychometric measures of intelligence (especially verbally oriented measures, regardless of the type of creativity measured). This relationship is typically not a particularly strong one, although some have argued that the relationship between the latent constructs of creativity and intelligence is underestimated because the analyses only look at observable scores (i.e., performance on an intelligence test). If it were possible to get a true' measure of the constructs, there might be a higher relationship. It is notable, however, that nearly all of these studies do not use traditional, individually administered intelligence tests. In the meta-analysis, many of the studies were more than 30 years old and, therefore, were conducted using intelligence tests that do not reflect current theories of intelligence. In addition, most of the studies used group intelligence tests. Although group intelligence tests serve a strong purpose in research studies, they are not used by most school...

Needs for Mentoring Creative Individuals

Research shows that teachers' judgments of their favorite students and creativity are negatively correlated. That is, teachers do not like students who possess creative characteristics, seeing them as disruptive and bothersome. Rather, they prefer students who conform to teachers' rules and orders without questioning teachers' authority. If asked for preferences between highly intelligent and highly creative students, teachers choose the students with higher IQ who are more studious, think logically, and are more responsible. This is

Brief History of Intelligence

IQ, or intelligence quotient, is a quantitative measure based on scores on a battery of standardized tests of verbal comprehension, quantitative reasoning, perceptual reasoning, processing speed, and working memory. Tests such as the Stanford-Binet Scale and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale compare an individual's score normatively to a bell curve centered at 100 such that 68 of people fall between 85 and 115. The g-factor, or 'general' intelligence, relates to the positive correlation among various cognitive abilities measures. Derived using statistical factor analysis, 'g' is the dominant first factor on which many intelligence tests strongly load. Thus, 'g' is interpreted as a summary measure of intelligence of the person, although it primarily reflects a consistency across various intelligence tests.

Cognitive Functioning

Neuropsychiatric impairment in CHD has been well documented since the first assessments over 50 years ago (Bret and Kohler 1956). Assessments using a variety of standardized cognitive tests (e.g., Bayley Scales of Infant Development, Cattell Infant Intelligence Scale, McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities, Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Revised) have shown lower mean IQ scores for youngsters with cyanotic heart lesions compared with physically healthy children and those with acyanotic heart lesions (DeMaso et al. 1990 Gonzalez-Pardo et al. 1981 Kramer et al. 1989 Morris et al. 1993 Sil-bert et al. 1969). Cyanotic heart lesions have been associated with developmental and neurological abnormalities in as many as 25 of child survivors of cardiac surgery (Ferry 1987).

Developmental Trajectories

Understand the development of genius, it is critical to understand three factors heredity, native gifts (i.e., endowment and or talent), and education. Whereas Galton's work had focused on the role of heredity in the expression of genius, hers would focus on the role of native endowment, which follows logically from considerations of heredity. Furthermore, an understanding of the role of native endowment must precede studies on the effect of education on the gifted person. She also adopted a retrospective, historiometric approach to her investigation. Specifically, she started out by selecting eminent individuals, and then calculated their childhood IQ based on recorded biographical data about early intellectual development. Eminence was computed using the amount of space devoted to each individual in standard reference works. If Terman were correct in hypothesizing that high IQ leads to genius, then the reverse analytic path should lead to the same conclusion by showing higher IQ...

Radiation Therapy

The sequelae of radiation therapy in the developing nervous system can be profound, and have become increasingly important as the survival of patients with medulloblastoma has improved. Cognitive impairment, growth retardation, and leukoencephalopathy are all associated with the use of radiation therapy in children. The vast majority of children with medulloblastoma treated with adjuvant radiation therapy have a decrease in intelligence quotient (IQ).39 Furthermore, the hypothalamic-pituitary axis is often depressed following posterior fossa irradiation, as evidenced by the high incidence of growth hormone deficiency in patients and an average height in the 25th percentile.39

Growth and Development

The Denver Developmental Screening Test, shown in Figure 24-1, was developed to detect developmental delays in the first 6 years of a child's life, with special emphasis on the first 2 years. It is standardized on the basis of findings from a large group of children in the Denver, Colorado, area and tests the four main areas of development indicated previously. A line is drawn from top to bottom of the sheet according to the age of the child. Each of the milestones crossed by this line is tested. Each milestone has a bar that indicates the percentage of the ''standard'' population that should be able to perform this task. Failure to perform an item passed by 90 of children is significant. Two failures in any of the four main areas indicate a developmental delay. This test is a screening device for developmental delays it is not an intelligence test.

The Challenge of Attaining Results

Would have been expected, and significantly better than GE subjects by about a third of a standard deviation on incidental follow-up testing on an Army Intelligence test (DAPAR) two years later (Feuerstein et al., 1981 Rand, Tannenbaum, & Feuerstein, 1979). These findings show both magnitude and persistence of effects, with some transfer. The program uses testlike activities, so the transfer to a nonverbal intelligence test might be considered a case of near transfer (Perkins & Salomon, 1988). Evidence of transfer to school tasks - far transfer - seems to depend on the individual teacher or instructor, who is responsible for providing the bridging (Savell, Twohig, & Rachford, 1986 Sternberg, 1986).

The Challenge of Defining Good Thinking

The norms and heuristics approach to defining and cultivating good thinking may be the most common, but another avenue looks directly to models of intelligence (see Sternberg, Chap. 31). Not so often encountered in the teaching of thinking is good thinking defined through classic intelligence quotient (IQ) theory. On the one hand, many, although by no means all, scholars

What Are Personality Disorders

In an attempt to circumvent these shortcomings, a number of theorists have proposed that personality disorders be defined dimensionally rather than categorically. An illustration of this distinction appears in the field of cognitive testing, where intelligence can be described either with a continuous measure such as the intelligence quotient (i.e.,

Association Studies from Molecular Genetics

The authors conclude that the molecular genetic findings support the assumption that high dopamine levels in the prefrontal cortex are associated with higher cognitive abilities. However, it has to be mentioned that the total dopamine activity is not only influenced by the dopamine catabolism but also by the synthesis rate of dopamine in the presynapse, the activity of the dopamine transporter, the receptor density, and the receptor affinity. DRD2 TAQIA, the second polymorphism under investigation, has been studied with respect to intelligence but the results were heterogenous. One study reported a higher IQ in carriers of the A1A1 genotype in a female Taiwanese sample, Berman and Noble found a significant reduction in visuospatial performance in a sample of Caucasian children and Petrill et al. found no association between IQ and the DRD2 gene in an adult Caucasian sample. The rationale for investigating the TPH A779C polymorphism, a serotonergic SNP, with respect...

Traditional and Untraditional Views

Early definitions usually equated giftedness with intelligence as measured by standardized intelligence tests. Therefore, gifted-ness was not only assessed by, but also defined by, the intelligence quotient (IQ). Lewis Terman's interpretation and use of Alfred Binet's intelligence test in the United States in the 1920s enabled the study and classification of individuals according to a measure of mental ability. Further development of intelligence tests that allowed for group administration and efficient scoring enabled wider use of these tests by schools and businesses. However, concerns about equity in the 1930s and 1940s resulted in a decline in the use of IQ tests to classify students for special classes in the United States.

Theories of Intelligence which Encompass Creativity

The combined CHC theory incorporates both the concept of a general intelligence (all of the different aspects of intelligence are considered to be related to a common 'g', although this aspect is not often emphasized) and the concept of many different aspects of intelligence. Ten different broad factors of intelligence are proposed. These include Gf and Gc from the initial Cattell-Horn theory. They also include Gq (quantitative knowledge, typically math-related), Grw (reading and writing), Gsm (short-term memory), Gv (visual processing), Ga (auditory processing), Glr (long-term storage and retrieval), Gs (processing speed), and Gt (decision speed reaction time). Of these 10, only 7 are directly measured by today's intelligence tests Gq and Grw are in the domain of academic achievement, and, therefore, are measured by achievement tests, and Gt is not measured by any major standardized test. Intelligence tests may indirectly measure some of these other skills, however. For example,...

Approaches to Intelligence

Nettelbeck (e.g., 1987 Nettelbeck & Lally, 1976 Nettelbeck & Rabbitt, 1992 see also Deary, 2000, 2002 Deary & Stough, 1996) suggested a speed-related indicator ofintelli-gence involving the encoding of visual information for brief storage in working memory. But what is critical in this view is not speed of response but rather the length of time a stimulus must be presented for the subject to be able to process that stimulus. The shorter the presentation length, the higher the score. The key variable is the length of time for the presentation of the target stimulus, not the speed of responding by pressing the button. Nettelbeck operationally defined inspection time as the length of time for presentation of the target stimulus after which the participant still responds with at least 90 success. Nettelbeck (1987) found that shorter inspection times correlate with higher scores on intelligence tests e.g., various subscales of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) among...

Targets Of Pharmacological Treatment Clinical Substrate

Schizophrenia is characterized by a wide range of symptoms, accompanied by significant deficits in function and marked diminution in the quality of life. Since no cure currently exists, pharmacological treatment is directed at inducing and maintaining remission of various symptom dimensions. Treatment-relevant domains of pathology include positive symptoms (delusions, hallucinations, suspiciousness, disorganized thinking), negative symptoms (impoverished speech and thinking, lack of social drive, flatness of emotional expression, apathy), cognitive and neuropsychological dysfunction average intelligence quotient (IQ) in schizophrenia is 80 to 84, with prominent memory and learning difficulties , and mood symptoms (depression, anxiety). Schizophrenia presents a unique set of symptoms in each individual affected, creating considerable diversity of clinical presentation. To a large extent, the unique features of each case are defined by the relative contribution of various domains to the...

Lead Poisoning Clinical Summary

Lead poisoning affects multiple organ systems. Neurotoxicity may range from subtle personality changes to encephalopathy and cerebral edema. At the societal level, even small lead burdens are associated with statistically significant decreases in intelligence quotient. Motor neuropathy such as foot drop and wrist drop may be seen in adult patients, especially after occupational exposure. Microcytic anemia may occur and basophilic stippling of the red cells may be seen. Hypertension and an acute nephropathy may occur. Abdominal pain may be described by patients but unlike other heavy metal poisonings, constipation is more likely than diarrhea. Radiographic lead lines, bands of increased density on long bones metaphyses, may be seen in young children. These densities are not due to deposition of lead but rather increased calcium deposition.

Intellectual Abilities

Intelligence is considered to be the culmination of cognitive abilities. The testing of intelligence involves assessments of attention, reasoning, memory, language, perception, and construction. Intelligence tests should provide an overview of cognitive function integrity. Most tests of intelligence do not adequately assess all cognitive abilities, however. INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENTS These tests are the current gold standard in intelligence testing and include the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale- Revised (WAIS-R), Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III (WISC-III), and Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised (WPPSI-R). y , y , y Each Wechsler test is used for different age ranges the WPPSI-R test is for ages 3 years to 7 years and 3 months the WISC- III test is for ages 6 years to 16 years 11 months and the WAIS-R test is for ages 16 years to 74 years 11 months. Because the different Wechsler tests are similar in construction, interpretation, and psychometric...


Evaluation procedures must be selected to provide a profile of the child's strengths and difficulties to aid in instructional planning. Regulations implementing IDEA state that, Tests and other evaluation materials include those tailored to assess specific areas of educational need and not merely those that are designed to provide a single general intelligence quotient (34 C.F.R. 300.532). The assessment is planned to ensure that the information gathered will result in maximum feasible assistance to the child (NASP-PPE, IV, C, 2, 7).

Nonbiased Assessment

In Chapter 1, we suggested that psychologists have an ethical obligation to help ensure that the science of psychology is used to promote human welfare in the schools, neighborhoods, and communities in which they work and in the larger society. Unfortunately, American history is replete with examples of the ways in which the science of psychology has been used to oppress ethnic, racial, and linguistic minorities in the United States and justify discriminatory practices in society and in our schools. For example, following the introduction of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales in 1916 and the development of group ability tests, IQ tests were used to characterize Negroes as a genetically inferior race and justify discriminatory treatment in society, to characterize non-Anglo immigrants as intellectually inferior and therefore undesirable, and in support of laws allowing sterilization of women of below normal IQ without their consent (Gould, 1996). In schools, IQ and other mental...

Childhood precocity

Prior to adulthood, the concept of precocious development is intimately related with that of intelligence. Indeed, the intelligence quotient, or IQ, was originally conceived as a ratio of mental to chronological age. Those who are highly accelerated in intellectual development exhibit higher than normal ratios and thus earn higher than average IQ scores. This linkage is evident in the IQs that Cox calculated for her 301 eminent personalities, because the scores were based on comparing their intellectual capacities in childhood and adolescence with what is normally expected of youths at the same age level. Nonetheless, it should also be pointed out that Cox's assessments were actually much broader than are found in the typical IQ test, such as the Stanford-Binet. The most weight was given to precocity directly related to the domain of


The needed measures came from an unexpected quarter. In the early twentieth century, Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon devised an intelligence scale that assessed a child's mental age. William Stern later conceived the idea of dividing the mental age by the chronological age and then multiplying the result by 100 to yield an intelligence quotient, or IQ. Not long after, Lewis M. Terman adapted the Binet-Simon for use with English participants, implementing Stern's concept of the IQ. In the early 1920s Terman applied the resulting Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale to a large sample of young children. Those with IQs of 140 or more were then subjected to an intensive longitudinal investigation. The study was published in a series of volumes under the title Genetic Studies of Genius. The criterion of IQ 140 thus became the psychometric definition of genius. This cut-off even found its way into some standard dictionaries. Society sets the IQ requirement at the 99.9999th percentile Because...

Toxicity of lead

Epidemiological studies in children have shown an inverse relationship between blood lead concentrations above 10 ig dl and intelligence quotient (IQ). There is some evidence that even lower exposures are also harmful, and it is therefore assumed that there is no completely harmless level of exposure to lead.


Autism is a pervasive developmental disorder. This means that autism is characterized by specific delays and deviance in social, communicative, and cognitive development that are typically manifested within the first few years of life. Although often associated with mental retardation, the disturbances in these domains are both qualitatively distinct from and quantitatively disproportionate to the mental age intelligence quotient (IQ) of the individual who exhibits them. The diagnostic criteria for autism currently emphasize disturbances in three broad areas of developmental dysfunction. These include (1) qualitative disturbances in social interaction, such as impaired use of nonverbal behaviors, failure to develop peer relationships, and poor social reciprocity (2) qualitative disturbances in communication, such as a significant delay in the development of spoken language, an inability to sustain a spoken conversation, stereotyped use of language, or paucity of symbolic or imitative...

Assessing IQ

The term IQ is used in everyday conversation without reference to its original definition as the outcome of a mathematical formula that produces an intelligence quotient. The formula used was the ratio of mental age (MA) to chronological age (CA), multiplied by 100 Although a variety of IQ tests have been developed over the decades since this type of testing became popular, two factors are considered essential and apply to all intelligence testing IQ tests have been developed for children of various ages and for adults. For the school-age child, the Stanford-Binet and Weschler Scales tests are the most frequently used. They are also the tests that have been the most revised through ongoing research to increase their reliability and validity.

Stanford Binet Scale

In its fourth edition, this IQ test provides an overall intelligence score along with four subscores The Stanford-Binet IQ test is considered very reliable (in the technical sense of reliability previously defined) and shows moderately high correlations with other measures of intelligence thus it also is considered a valid measure.

The Weschler Scales

There are three separate Weschler IQ tests one for children from 3 to 7 years (WPPSI), one for children from 6 to 16 (WISC), and a third for ages 16 and older (WAIS). They provide an overall intelligence score and two subscales in verbal and performance areas. Ever since IQ tests have been given to children of various ages, critics have complained that they do not adequately take into account ethnic biases and socioeconomic differences among children. In response, supporters of IQ testing say that later versions of the Stanford-Binet and Weschler Scales have compensated for earlier cultural biases. Others say that any biases that exist in a test demonstrate the same biases that a student will find later in the job market and broader culture he will enter. An increasingly accepted middle position suggests that a low score on an intelligence test means that a child currently lacks some skills needed to succeed in school. Not that the child will always fail in school or is just plain...

Clinical Features

The primary cognitive finding in the PPA variant of FTD (also known as progressive nonfluent aphasia) is a nonfluent expressive language disorder that includes agrammatisms, phonemic paraphasias, and anomia as the early and prominent signs (Grossman, 2002). Impaired word retrieval and repetition as well as reading paralexias have also been reported. Semantic fluency tests are reported to be better performed than those involving initial letter word generation. As might be expected, verbal memory is more impaired than nonverbal memory, and PPA patients have higher performance IQ than verbal IQ scores on the Wechsler intelligence scales. Snowden et al. (1996) report that PPA patients show better preserved executive skills early in the disease than most FTD patients. Like other FTD patients, PPA patients show preserved spatial abilities until quite late in the disease.

Timothy A Salthouse

Some of the most convincing data on the relations between age and reasoning are those derived from standardized tests because the variables were designed to optimize psychometric properties such as sensitivity, reliability, and construct validity, and the normative samples have typically been moderately large and selected to be representative of the general population (see Sternberg, Chap. 31, for discussion of intelligence tests). Three recent cognitive test batteries have each included at least two measures of reasoning. The tests included in the Kaufman Adult Intelligence Test (Kaufman & Kaufman, 1993) were described on page 6 of the test manual in the following manner Logical Steps - Examinees attend to logical premises presented both visually and aurally, and then respond to a question making use of the logical premises and Mystery Codes -Examinees study the identifying codes Figure 24.1. Relations of reasoning performance to age in variables from standardized tests. Sample...

Cognitive Issues

Few investigators have examined whether youth with JRA experience cognitive sequelae that are associated with treatment or disease variables (Carter et al. 1999 Feldmann et al. 2005). There has been some evidence to suggest that the use of steroids associated with the management of JRA may produce cognitive sequelae (Feldmann et al. 2005). Employing a case-control design, Carter et al. (1999) examined cognitive functioning in youth with JRA and youth with chronic fatigue. Cognitive functioning was measured with the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test (K-BIT). Findings revealed no significant differences between the two groups, with both groups having a mean K-BIT intelligence quotient that was in the average range. This suggested that cognitive functioning of youth with JRA actually may not be impaired.

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