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with in-stent restenosis in patients undergoing coronary stenting. Circulation 2003;108:2074-2081.

43. Van Belle E, Perie M, Braune D, et al: Effects of coronary stenting on vessel patency and long-term clinical outcome after percutaneous coronary revascularization in diabetic patients. J Am Coll Cardiol 2002;40:410-417.

44. Williams DO, Jacobs AK, Vlachos HA, et al: Marked improvements in in-hospital outcomes following contemporary PCI in patients with diabetes. J Am Coll Cardiol 2004;43(Suppl A):56A.

45. Gilbert J, Raboud J, Zinman B: Meta-analysis of the effect of diabetes on restenosis rates among patients receiving coronary angioplasty stenting. Diabetes Care 2004;27:990-994.

46. Roffi M, Moliterno DJ, Meier B, et al: Impact of different platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor inhibitors among diabetic patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: TARGET 1-year follow-up. Circulation 2002;105:2730-2736.

47. Mathew V, Gersh BJ, Williams BA, et al: Outcomes in patients with diabetes mellitus undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention in the current era: PRESTO trial. Circulation 2004;109:476-480.

48. Laskey WK, Selzer F, Vlachos HA, et al: Comparison of inhospital and one-year outcomes in patients with and without diabetes mellitus undergoing percutaneous catheter intervention (from the NHLBI Dynamic Registry). Am J Cardiol 2002;90:1062-1067.

49. Shaw RE, Anderson HV, Brindis RG, et al: Development of a risk adjustment mortality model using the American College of Cardiology-National Cardiovascular Data Registry (ACC-NCDR) experience: 1998-2000. J Am Coll Cardiol 2002;39: 1104-1112.

50. Moussa I, Leon MB, Baim DS, et al: Impact of sirolimus-eluting stents on outcome in diabetic patients: A SIRIUS substudy. Circulation 2004;109:2273-2278.

51. Hermiller JB, Raizner A, Cannon L, et al: Outcomes with the polymer-based paclitaxel-eluting TAXUS stent in patients with diabetes mellitus: The TAXUS-IV trial. J Am Coll Cardiol 2005;45:1172-1179.

52. Sabate M, Jimenez-Quevedo P, Angiolillo DJ, et al: Randomized comparison of sirolimus-eluting stent versus standard stent for percutaneous coronary revascularization in diabetic patients: The Diabetes and Sirolimus-Eluting Stent (DIABETES) trial. Circulation 2005;112:2175-2183.

53. Urban P, Gershlick AH, Guagliumi G, et al: Safety of coronary sirolimus-eluting stents in daily clinical practice: One-year follow-up of the e-Cypher registry. Circulation 2006;113:1434-1441.

54. Stankovic G, Cosgrave J, Chieffo A, et al: Impact of sirolimus-eluting and paclitaxel-eluting stents on outcome in patients with diabetes mellitus and stenting in more than one coronary artery. Am J Cardiol 2006;98:362-366.

55. Iakovou I, Schmidt T, Bonizzoni E, et al: Incidence, predictors, and outcome of thrombosis after successful implantation of drug-eluting stents. JAMA 2005;293:2126-2130.

56. Angiolillo DJ, Bernardo E, Ramirez C, et al: Insulin therapy is associated with platelet dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus on dual oral antiplatelet treatment. J Am Coll Cardiol 2006;48:298-304.

57. Dibra A, Kastrati A, Mehilli J, et al: Paclitaxel-eluting or siro-limus-eluting stents to prevent restenosis in diabetic patients. N Engl J Med 2005;353:663-670.

58. Carson JL, Scholz PM, Chen AY, et al: Diabetes mellitus increases short-term mortality and morbidity in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery. J Am Coll Cardiol 2002;40:418-423.

59. Leavitt BJ, Sheppard L, Maloney C, et al: Effect of diabetes and associated conditions on long-term survival after coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Circulation 2004; 110: II41-II44.

60. Sabik JF, Blackstone EH, Gillinov AM, et al: Occurrence and risk factors for reintervention after coronary artery bypass grafting. Circulation 2006;114:I454-I460.

61. Sprecher DL, Pearce GL: How deadly is the "deadly quartet"? A post-CABG evaluation. J Am Coll Cardiol 2000,-36:1159-1165.

62. Lauruschkat AH, Arnrich B, Albert AA, et al: Prevalence and risks of undiagnosed diabetes mellitus in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. Circulation 2005;112:2397-2402.

63. Endo M, Tomizawa Y, Nishida H: Bilateral versus unilateral internal mammary revascularization in patients with diabetes. Circulation 2003;108:1343-1349.

64. Magee MJ, Dewey TM, Acuff T, et al: Influence of diabetes on mortality and morbidity: Off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting versus coronary artery bypass grafting with cardiopulmonary bypass. Ann Thorac Surg 2001;72:776-780.

65. Corpus RA, George PB, House JA, et al: Optimal glycemic control is associated with a lower rate of target vessel revas-cularization in treated type II diabetic patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention. J Am Coll Cardiol 2004;43:8-14.

66. Hasdai D, Rizza RA, Grill DE, et al: Glycemic control and outcome of diabetic patients after successful percutaneous coronary revascularization. Am Heart J 2001;141:117-123.

67. Furnary AP, Gao G, Grunkemeier GL, et al: Continuous insulin infusion reduces mortality in patients with diabetes undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. J Thorac Cardio-vasc Surg 2003;125:1007-1021.

68. Lazar HL, Chipkin SR, Fitzgerald CA, et al: Tight glycemic control in diabetic coronary artery bypass graft patients improves perioperative outcomes and decreases recurrent ischemic events. Circulation 2004;109:1497-1502.

69. Law RE, Goetze S, Xi XP, et al: Expression and function of PPARgamma in rat and human vascular smooth muscle cells. Circulation 2000;101:1311-1318.

70. Takagi T, Akasaka T, Yamamuro A, et al: Troglitazone reduces neointimal tissue proliferation after coronary stent implantation in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes melli-tus: A serial intravascular ultrasound study. J Am Coll Cardiol 2000;36:1529-1535.

71. Choi D, Kim SK, Choi SH, et al: Preventative effects of rosi-glitazone on restenosis after coronary stent implantation in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2004;27: 2654-2660.

72. Marx N, Wohrle J, Nusser T, et al: Pioglitazone reduces neo-intima volume after coronary stent implantation: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial in nondiabetic patients. Circulation 2005;112:2792-2798.

73. Brooks MM, Frye RL, Genuth S, et al: Hypotheses, design, and methods for the Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes (BARI 2D) Trial. Am J Cardiol 2006; 97:9G-19G.

74. Flaherty JD, Davidson CJ: Diabetes and coronary revascular-ization. JAMA 2005;293:1501-1508.

75. BARI Investigators: Seven-year outcome in the Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation (BARI) by treatment and diabetic status. J Am Coll Cardiol 2000;35: 1122-1129.

76. Hoffman SN, TenBrook JA, Wolf MP, et al: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing coronary artery bypass graft with percutaneous transluminal coronary angio-plasty: One- to eight-year outcomes. J Am Coll Cardiol 2003;41:1293-1304.

77. Serruys PW, Ong AT, van Herwerden LA, et al: Five-year outcomes after coronary stenting versus bypass surgery for the treatment of multivessel disease: The final analysis of the Arterial Revascularization Therapies Study (ARTS) randomized trial. J Am Coll Cardiol 2005;46:575-581.

78. Srinivas VS, Brooks MM, Detre KM, et al: Contemporary percutaneous coronary intervention versus balloon angio-plasty for multivessel coronary artery disease: A comparison of the NHLBI Dynamic Registry and the BARI study. Circulation 2002;106:1627-1633.

79. Niles NW, McGrath PD, Malenka D, et al: Survival of patients with diabetes and multivessel coronary artery disease after surgical or percutaneous coronary revascularization: Results of a large regional prospective study. J Am Coll Cardiol 2001;37:1008-1015.

80. Brener SJ, Lytle BW, Casserly IP, et al: Propensity analysis of long-term survival after surgical or percutaneous revascular-

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81. Hannan EL, Racz MJ, Walford G, et al: Long-term outcomes of coronary-artery bypass grafting versus stent implantation. N Engl J Med 2005;352:2174-2183.

82. Detre KM, Guo P, Holubkov R, et al: Coronary revasculariza-tion in diabetic patients: A comparison of the randomized and observational components of the Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation (BARI). Circulation 1999;99: 633-640.

83. Kip KE, Alderman EL, Bourassa MG, et al: Differential influence of diabetes mellitus on increased jeopardized myocardium after initial angioplasty or bypass surgery: Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation. Circulation 2002;105:1914-1920.

84. Detre KM, Lombardero MS, Brooks MM, et al: The effect of previous coronary-artery bypass surgery on the prognosis of patients with diabetes who have acute myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 2000;342:989-997.

85. Schwartz L, Kip KE, Frye RL, et al: Coronary bypass graft patency in patients with diabetes in the Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation (BARI). Circulation 2002;106: 2652-2658.

86. Macaya C, Garcia H, Serruys PW. Sirolimus-eluting stent versus surgery and bare metal stenting in the treatment of diabetic patients with multivessel disease: A comparison between ARTS II and ARTS I. Circulation 2005;112(Suppl II): II-655.

87. Van Belle E, Ketelers R, Bauters C, et al: Patency of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty sites at 6-month angiographic follow-up: A key determinant of survival in diabetics after coronary balloon angioplasty. Circulation 2001;103:1218-1224.

88. Kapur A, Malik IS, Bagger JP, et al: The Coronary Artery Revascularisation in Diabetes (CARDia) trial: Background, aims, and design. Am Heart J 2005;149:13-19.

89. Bhatt DL, Roe MT, Peterson ED, et al: Utilization of early invasive management strategies for high-risk patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes: Results from the CRUSADE Quality Improvement Initiative. JAMA 2004;292:2096-2104.

90. Roe MT, Parsons LS, Pollack CV, et al: Quality of care by classification of myocardial infarction: Treatment patterns for ST-segment elevation vs non-ST-segment elevation myo-cardial infarction. Arch Intern Med 2005;165:1630-1636.

91. Bartnik M, Ryden L, Ferrari R, et al: The prevalence of abnormal glucose regulation in patients with coronary artery disease across Europe. Eur Heart J 2004;25:1880-1890.

92. Brogan GX, Peterson ED, Mulgund J, et al: Treatment disparities in the care of patients with and without diabetes presenting with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes. Diabetes Care 2006;29:9-14.

93. Otten R, Kline-Rogers E, Meier DJ, et al: Impact of pre-diabetic state on clinical outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Heart 2005;91:1466-1468.

94. Wallentin L, Lagerqvist B, Husted S, et al: Outcome at 1 year after an invasive compared with a non-invasive strategy in unstable coronary-artery disease: The FRISC II invasive randomised trial. Lancet 2000;356:9-16.

95. Cannon CP, Weintraub WS, Demopoulos LA, et al: Comparison of early invasive and conservative strategies in patients with unstable coronary syndromes treated with the glycopro-tein IIb/IIIa inhibitor tirofiban. N Engl J Med 2001;344: 1879-1887.

96. Bertrand ME, Simoons ML, Fox KA, et al: Management of acute coronary syndromes in patients presenting without persistent ST-segment elevation. Eur Heart J 2002;23:1809-1840.

97. Sedlis SP, Morrison DA, Lorin JD, et al: Percutaneous coronary intervention versus coronary bypass graft surgery for diabetic patients with unstable angina and risk factors for adverse outcomes with bypass: Outcome of diabetic patients in the AWESOME randomized trial and registry. J Am Coll Cardiol 2002;40:1555-1566.

98. Kosiborod M, Rathore SS, Inzucchi SE, et al: Admission glucose and mortality in elderly patients hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction: Implications for patients with and without recognized diabetes. Circulation 2005;111:3078-3086.

99. Aguilar D, Solomon SD, Kober L, et al: Newly diagnosed and previously known diabetes mellitus and 1-year outcomes of acute myocardial infarction: The VALIANT trial. Circulation 2004;110:1572-1578.

100. Norhammar A, Malmberg K, Ryden L, et al: Under utilisation of evidence-based treatment partially explains for the unfavourable prognosis in diabetic patients with acute myocar-dial infarction. Eur Heart J 2003;24:838-844.

101. Grines C, Patel A, Zijlstra F, et al: Primary coronary angio-plasty compared with intravenous thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction: Six-month follow up and analysis of individual patient data from randomized trials. Am Heart J 2003;145:47-57.

102. Bonnefoy E, Steg PG, Chabaud S, et al: Is primary angioplasty more effective than prehospital fibrinolysis in diabetics with acute myocardial infarction? Data from the CAPTIM randomized clinical trial. Eur Heart J 2005;26:1712-1718.

103. Hsu LF, Mak KH, Lau KW, et al: Clinical outcomes of patients with diabetes mellitus and acute myocardial infarction treated with primary angioplasty or fibrinolysis. Heart 2002;88:260-265.

104. Stuckey TD, Stone GW, Cox DA, et al: Impact of stenting and abciximab in patients with diabetes mellitus undergoing primary angioplasty in acute myocardial infarction (the CADILLAC trial). Am J Cardiol 2005;95:1-7.

105. Malmberg K, Ryden L, Wedel H, et al: Intense metabolic control by means of insulin in patients with diabetes mellitus and acute myocardial infarction (DIGAMI 2): effects on mortality and morbidity. Eur Heart J 2005;26:650-661.

106. Mehta SR, Yusuf S, Diaz R, et al: Effect of glucose-insulin-potassium infusion on mortality in patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: The CREATE-ECLA randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2005;293:437-446.

107. ETDRS Investigators: Aspirin effects on mortality and morbidity in patients with diabetes mellitus. JAMA 1992; 268: 1292-1300.

108. Antiplatelet Trialists Investigators: Collaborative meta-analy-sis of randomised trials of antiplatelet therapy for prevention of death, myocardial infarction, and stroke in high risk patients. BMJ 2002;324:71-86.

109. Bhatt DL, Marso SP, Hirsch AT, et al: Amplified benefit of clopidogrel versus aspirin in patients with diabetes mellitus. Am J Cardiol 2002;90:625-628.

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111. Bhatt DL, Fox KA, Hacke W, et al: Clopidogrel and aspirin versus aspirin alone for the prevention of atherothrombotic events. N Engl J Med 2006;354:1706-1717.

112. Steinhubl SR, Berger PB, Mann JT, et al: Early and sustained dual oral antiplatelet therapy following percutaneous coronary intervention: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2002;288:2411-2420.

113. Mehta SR, Yusuf S, Peters RJ, et al: Effects of pretreatment with clopidogrel and aspirin followed by long-term therapy in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: The PCI-CURE study. Lancet 2001;358:527-533.

114. Chen ZM, Jiang LX, Chen YP, et al: Addition of clopidogrel to aspirin in 45,852 patients with acute myocardial infarction: Randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2005;366: 1607-1621.

115. Sabatine MS, Cannon CP, Gibson CM, et al: Addition of clopidogrel to aspirin and fibrinolytic therapy for myocardial infarction with ST-segment elevation. N Engl J Med 2005; 352:1179-1189.

116. Sabatine MS, Cannon CP, Gibson CM, et al: Effect of clopi-dogrel pretreatment before percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction treated with fibrinolytics: The PCI-CLARITY study. JAMA 2005;294:1224-1232.

117. Bhatt DL, Marso SP, Lincoff AM, et al: Abciximab reduces mortality in diabetics following percutaneous coronary intervention. J Am Coll Cardiol 2000;35:922-928.

118. Mehilli J, Kastrati A, Schuhlen H, et al: Randomized clinical trial of abciximab in diabetic patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary interventions after treatment with a high loading dose of clopidogrel. Circulation 2004; 110: 3627-3635.

119. Roffi M, Chew D, Mukherjee D, et al: Platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibition in acute coronary syndromes: Gradient of benefit related to the revascularization strategy. Eur Heart J 2002;23:1441-1448.

120. Roffi M, Chew DP, Mukherjee D, et al: Platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors reduce mortality in diabetic patients with non-ST-segment-elevation acute coronary syndromes. Circulation 2001;104:2767-2771.

121. Keating FK, Whitaker DA, Sobel BE, et al: Augmentation of inhibitory effects of glycoprotein IIb-IIIa antagonists in patients with diabetes. Thromb Res 2004;113:27-34.

122. Peterson ED, Pollack CV, Roe MT, et al: Early use of glyco-protein IIb/IIIa inhibitors in non-ST-elevation acute myocar-dial infarction: Observations from the National Registry of Myocardial Infarction 4. J Am Coll Cardiol 2003;42:45-53.

123. Montalescot G, Barragan P, Wittenberg O, et al: Platelet gly-coprotein IIb/IIIa inhibition with coronary stenting for acute myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 2001;344:1895-1903.

124. Mahaffey KW, Cohen M, Garg J, et al: High-risk patients with acute coronary syndromes treated with low-molecular-weight or unfractionated heparin: Outcomes at 6 months and 1 year in the SYNERGY trial. JAMA 2005;294:2594-2600.

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126. Gurm HS, Sarembock IJ, Kereiakes DJ, et al: Use of bivalirudin during percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with diabetes mellitus: An analysis from the REPLACE-2 trial. J Am Coll Cardiol 2005;45:1932-1938.

127. Lev EI, Patel R, Karim A, et al: Anti-thrombotic effect of bivalirudin compared with eptifibatide and unfractionated heparin in diabetic patients: An ex vivo human study. Thromb Haemost 2006;95:441-446.

128. Herman WH, Hoerger TJ, Brandle M, et al: The cost-effectiveness of lifestyle modification or metformin in preventing type 2 diabetes in adults with impaired glucose tolerance. Ann Intern Med 2005;142:323-332.

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132. Siegel RD, Cupples A, Schaefer EJ, et al: Lipoproteins, apoli-poproteins, and low-density lipoprotein size among diabetics in the Framingham offspring study. Metabolism 1996;45: 1267-1272.

133. Pyorala K, Pedersen TR, Kjekshus J, et al: Cholesterol lowering with simvastatin improves prognosis of diabetic patients with coronary heart disease. Diabetes Care 1997;20:614-620.

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137. Gerstein HC, Mann JF, Yi Q et al: Albuminuria and risk of cardiovascular events, death, and heart failure in diabetic and nondiabetic individuals. JAMA 2001; 286:421426.

138. Nikolsky E, Mehran R, Turcot D, et al: Impact of chronic kidney disease on prognosis of patients with diabetes melli-tus treated with percutaneous coronary intervention. Am J Cardiol 2004;94:300-305.

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140. Gaede P, Vedel P, Larsen N, et al: Multifactorial intervention and cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med 2003;348:383-393.

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Diabetes 2

Diabetes 2

Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...

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