Ashutosh Tewari

Robotic Prostatectomy and Urologic Oncology Outcomes, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, U.S.A.

INTRODUCTION

Stanford Research Institute

HISTORY OF ROBOTICS

Advanced Robotics and Telemanipulator

ROBOTICS IN SURGERY

System for Minimally Invasive Surgery

Why Employ Robots in Surgery?

da Vinci Surgical System

Robotic Surgical Applications

Zeus System

ROBOTICS IN UROLOGY

TELESURGERY

Transurethral Resection of Prostate

VIRTUAL REALITY

Image-Guided Percutaneous Procedures

LIMITATIONS OF ROBOTIC SURGERY

Prostate Biopsy

FUTURE ROBOTIC SURGERY SYSTEMS

Laparoscopy

SUMMARY

Surgeon-Driven Robotic Systems

REFERENCES

Automated Endoscopic System for Optimal

Positioning

In the past century, advances in science and technology have brought dramatic changes that have transformed the practice of medicine and surgery.

The Laws of Robotics:

■ Law Zero: A robot may not injure humanity, or, through inaction, allow humanity to come to harm.

■ Law One: A robot may not injure a human being, or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm, unless this would violate a higherorder Law.

■ Law Two: A robot must obey the orders given to it by human beings except where such orders would conflict with a higher-order Law.

■ Law Three: A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with a higher-order Law.

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