Conclusion

The introduction of technological advances such as high-definition television, three-dimensional laparoscopy, and further miniaturization of high-resolution digital video cameras should enhance laparoscopic surgical proficiency, and further broadening of laparoscopic applications in urology. These enhancements, coupled with the recent advances in telemedicine and surgical simulation, should also improve laparoscopic training and skill acquisition, decrease operative times and costs, minimize morbidity, and overall improve patient care. Furthermore, the integration of all of these technological advancements within specially designed operating rooms should maximize the application of each individual advance and allow for improved ergonomic performance of minimally invasive urologic procedures.

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