Nanotechnology is expected to have a significant impact on urological research and clinical practice and will allow urologists to intervene at the cellular and molecular level, with diagnostic and therapeutic clinical benefit.

Concepts such as nanovectors for the targeted drug delivery, nanowires and nanocantilever arrays for the early detection of precancerous and malignant lesions, nanopores for DNA sequencing, and nanotubes and nanosensors for advanced delivery of theraputic agents are quickly moving from imagination to a reality, with significant applications relevant to the diagnosis, management, and treatment of all urological conditions.

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