Untreated infection and coagulopathy are the only absolute contraindications to laparoscopic nephrectomy. Complication and conversion rates are highest in patients undergoing laparoscopic nephrectomy for severe inflammatory conditions of the kidney (e.g., xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis, pyonephrosis) and should be regarded as relative contraindications for the inexperienced laparoscopist (1-4). Renal tuberculosis can be dealt with safely by laparoscopy, although operating times are longer compared with nephrectomy for other benign conditions (5). Obesity and previous abdominal surgery do not preclude a laparoscopic approach (6,7).

Gaining Weight 101

Gaining Weight 101

Find out why long exhausting workouts may do more harm than good. Most of the body-building workout and diet regimens out there are designed for the guys that gain muscle and fat easily. They focus on eating less and working out more in order to cut the excess fat from their bodies while adding needed muscle tone.

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