Contraindications

Untreated infection and coagulopathy are the only absolute contraindications to laparoscopic nephrectomy. Complication and conversion rates are highest in patients undergoing laparoscopic nephrectomy for severe inflammatory conditions of the kidney (e.g., xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis, pyonephrosis) and should be regarded as relative contraindications for the inexperienced laparoscopist (1-4). Renal tuberculosis can be dealt with safely by laparoscopy, although operating times are longer compared with nephrectomy for other benign conditions (5). Obesity and previous abdominal surgery do not preclude a laparoscopic approach (6,7).

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