General contraindications for laparoscopic surgery include severe cardiopulmonary compromise, uncorrected coagulopathy, and intra-abdominal sepsis. Specific to

TABLE2 ■ Equipment Necessary for Retroperitoneal Laparoscopy

TABLE 1 ■ Procedures Amenable to the Retroperitoneoscopic Approach

Adrenal Adrenalectomy Adrenal cyst decortication Renal Simple nephrectomy Radical nephrectomy Nephroureterectomy Renal tumor cryoablation Pyeloplasty Renal biopsy Renal cyst deroofing Living donor nephrectomy Partial nephrectomy

Pyelolithotomy and extended pyelolithotomy Anatrophic nephrolithotomy Ureteral Ureterolithotomy

Reconstruction for retrocaval ureter retroperitoneoscopy, relative contraindications include intense perirenal fibrosis secondary to xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis, genitourinary tuberculosis, or recent open surgery of the retroperitoneum. However, a history of percutaneous renal surgery or biopsy does not preclude successful retroperitoneoscopic laparoscopy.

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