Contributors

Clément-Claude Abbou Service d'Urologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Henri Mondor, Créteil, France

Joseph B. Abdelmalak Section of Voiding Dysfunction and Female Urology, Glickman Urological Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.A.

Sidney C. Abreu Section of Laparoscopy, ANDROS-Santa Helena Hospital of Brasilia, Brasilia, Brazil

David M. Albala Division of Urology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, U.S.A.

Nasser Albqami Department of Urology, KH der Elisabethinen, Teaching Hospital of University of Innsbruck, Linz, Austria

Murali K. Ankem Department of Urology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, and Overton Brooks VA Medical Center, Shreveport, Louisiana, U.S.A.

M. S. Ansari Department of Urology and Renal Transplantation, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, India

Mehran Anvari Department of Surgery, McMaster University, St. Joseph's Healthcare, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

Monish Aron Section of Laparoscopic and Robotic Surgery, Glickman Urological Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.A.

Carlos Arroyo Institut Montsouris, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France

Manit Arya Institute of Urology and Nephrology, University College London, London, U.K.

Arif Asif University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, U.S.A.

D. Assimos Department of Urology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, U.S.A.

Anthony Atala Department of Urology, Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, U.S.A.

Linda Baker Department of Urology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, U.S.A.

Simon V. Bariol Scottish Lithotriptor Centre, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, U.K.

Eric Barret Institut Montsouris, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France

John M. Barry Division of Urology and Renal Transplantation, The Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon, U.S.A.

Steven M. Baughman Urology Flight, Wilford Hall Medical Center, Lackland AFB, Texas, U.S.A.

Ashish Behari National Institute of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, U.S.A.

Bulent Berker Center for Special Minimally Invasive Surgery, Palo Alto, California, U.S.A.

Jeffrey Berkley Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, U.S.A.

Akshay Bhandari Vattikuti Urology Institute, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan, U.S.A.

Sam B. Bhayani Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.

Jay T. Bishoff Urology Flight, Wilford Hall Medical Center, Lackland AFB, Texas, U.S.A.

Renaud Bollens Department of Urology, University Clinics of Brussels, Erasme Hospital, Brussels, Belgium

Morton A. Bosniak Department of Radiology, NYU Medical Center, New York, New York, U.S.A.

Jeffrey A. Cadeddu Department of Urology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, U.S.A.

David Canes Lahey Clinic Medical Center, Institute of Urology, Burlington, Massachusetts, U.S.A.

Xavier Cathelineau Institut Montsouris, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France

Joäo Batista G. Cerqueira Section of Renal Transplantation, Federal University of Ceara, Fortaleza, Brazil

Ben Challacombe Laparoscopic Urology and Robotics, Guy's Hospital and Guy's King's and Thomas's School of Medicine, London, U.K.

David Y. Chan The James Buchanan Brady Urological Institute, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.

Bipan Chand Department of Minimally Invasive Surgery, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.A.

Gary W. Chien Section of Urology, University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A.

George K. Chow Department of Urology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, U.S.A.

Benjamin Chung Section of Laparoscopic and Robotic Surgery, Glickman Urological Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.A.

Ralph V. Clayman Department of Urology, University of California, Orange, California, U.S.A.

Jose R. Colombo, Jr. Section of Laparoscopic and Robotic Surgery, Glickman Urological Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.A.

Sakti Das Department of Urology, University of California Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento, California, U.S.A.

Prokar Dasgupta Laparoscopic Urology and Robotics,

Guy's Hospital and Guy's King's and Thomas's School of Medicine,

J. deKernion Department of Urology, UCLA Medical School, Los Angeles, California, U.S.A.

Joseph J. Del Pizzo Department of Urology, James Buchanan Brady Foundation, The New York Presbyterian Hospital-Weill Cornell Medical Center, New York, New York, U.S.A.

Mihir M. Desai Section of Laparoscopic and Minimally Invasive Surgery, Glickman Urological Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.A.

James F. Donovan Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio, U.S.A.

C. G. Eden Department of Urology, The North Hampshire Hospital, Basingstoke, Hampshire, U.K.

Scott E. Eggener Department of Urology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A.

Assaad El-Hakim Department of Urology, Long Island Jewish Medical Center, New Hyde Park, New York, U.S.A.

Tibet Erdogru Department of Urology, SLK Heilbronn Hospital, Heilbronn, Germany

Howard Evans Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, University of Alberta, Alberta, Canada

Tommaso Falcone Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.A.

Amr F. Fergany Section of Oncology, Laparoscopy and Minimally Invasive Surgery, Glickman Urological Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.A.

Antonio Finelli Section of Laparoscopic and Minimally Invasive Surgery, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Melissa C. Fischer Vattikuti Urology Institute, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan, U.S.A.

R. C. Flanigan Department of Urology, Loyola University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A.

John M. Fitzpatrick Department of Surgery, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland

Y. K. Fong Department of Urology, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria

Gilvan Neiva Fonseca Federal University of Goias, Goias, Brazil

Dan B. French Department of Urology, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas, U.S.A.

JoäoBatista Gadelha Section of Renal Transplantation, Federal University of Ceara, Fortaleza, Brazil

Alejandro Garcia-Segui Section of Laparoscopic and Minimally Invasive Surgery, Department of Urology, "La Floresta" Medical Institute, Caracas, Venezuela

Matthew T. Gettman Service d'Urologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Henri Mondor, Créteil, France

T. R. J. Gianduzzo Department of Urology, The North Hampshire Hospital, Basingstoke, Hampshire, U.K.

Inderbir S. Gill Section of Laparoscopic and Robotic Surgery, Glickman Urological Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.A.

Louis J. Giorgi, Jr. Mercy Medical Group, Carmichael, California, U.S.A.

Michael Grasso III Department of Urology, St. Vincent's Catholic Medical Center, New York, New York, U.S.A.

Bertrand Guillonneau Department of Urology, Sidney Kimmel Center for Prostate and Urologic Cancers, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York, U.S.A.

N. P. Gupta Department of Urology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India

Marlou B. Heiland University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio, U.S.A.

Ashok K. Hemal Department of Urology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India and Vattikuti Urology Institute, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan, U.S.A.

Brian R. Herts Section of Abdominal Imaging, Division of Diagnostic Radiology and Glickman Urological Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.A.

Michael G. Hobart Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, University of Alberta, Alberta, Canada

Andrâs Hoznek Service d'Urologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Henri Mondor, Créteil, France

Marzel Hrutza Department of Urology, SLK Heilbronn Hospital, Heilbronn, Germany

Thomas H. S. Hsu Department of Urology, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, U.S.A.

Stephen C. Jacobs Division University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.

Günter Janetschek Department of Urology, KH der Elisabethinen, Teaching Hospital of University of Innsbruck, Linz, Austria

Thomas W. Jarrett The James Buchanan Brady Urological Institute, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.

John E. Jelovsek Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.A.

Michael A. S. Jewett Division of Urology, Department of Surgical Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital and the University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Andrew B. Joel Department of Urology, Georgetown University Hospital, Washington, D.C., U.S.A.

Gerald H. Jordan Department of Urology, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, Virginia, U.S.A.

Adrian D. Joyce St. James's University Hospital, Leeds, U.K.

Jihad H. Kaouk Section of Laparoscopic and Robotic Surgery, Glickman Urological Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.A.

Louis R. Kavoussi Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.

Hyung L. Kim Department of Urology, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York, U.S.A.

Isaac Yi Kim Department of Urology, University of California, Orange, California, U.S.A.

Moses Kim Scott Department of Urology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, U.S.A.

Wisoot Kongchareonsombat Division of Endourology, Laparoscopy, and Minimally Invasive Surgery, Department of Urology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, U.S.A.

Amy E. Krambeck Department of Urology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota, U.S.A.

James O. L' Esperance Department of Urology, Naval Medical Center, San Diego, California, U.S.A.

Jaime Landman Department of Urology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York, U.S.A.

Benjamin R. Lee Department of Urology, Long Island Jewish Medical Center, New Hyde Park, New York, U.S.A.

Keith L. Lee Department of Urology, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, U.S.A.

Raymond J. Leveillee Division of Endourology, Laparoscopy and Minimally Invasive Surgery, Department of Urology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, U.S.A.

John A. Libertino Lahey Clinic Medical Center, Burlington, Massachusetts, U.S.A.

Lewis CH. Liew St. James's University Hospital, Leeds, U.K.

Yair Lotan Department of Urology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, U.S.A.

Ali Mahdavi Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York, U.S.A.

M. Marberger Department of Urology, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria

Robert Marcovich Department of Urology, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas, U.S.A.

Daniel R. Margulies Department of Surgery, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California, U.S.A.

Surena F. Matin Department of Urology, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, U.S.A.

Edward D. Matsumoto Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

Maxwell V. Meng Department of Urology and UCSF Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California School of Medicine, San Francisco, California, U.S.A.

Mani Menon Vattikuti Urology Institute, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan, U.S.A.

Anoop M. Meraney Section of Laparoscopic and Robotic Surgery, Glickman Urological Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.A.

Scott D. Miller Georgia Urology, Atlanta, Georgia, U.S.A.

Peter J. Millock Capital District Urologic Surgeons, Albany, New York, U.S.A.

Alireza Moinzadeh Section of Laparoscopic and Robotic Surgery, Glickman Urological Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.A.

Debora K. Moore Minimally Invasive Urology of the Southwest, Las Palmas Medical Center, El Paso, Texas, U.S.A.

Robert G. Moore Minimally Invasive Urology of the Southwest, Las Palmas Medical Center, El Paso, Texas, U.S.A.

Michael E. Moran Capital District Urologic Surgeons, Albany, New York, U.S.A.

Sergio G. Moreira, Jr. Division of Urology, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida, U.S.A.

Ravi Munver Department of Urology, Center for Minimally Invasive Urologic Surgery, Hackensack University Medical Center, Hackensack, New Jersey, U.S.A.

Robert P. Myers Department of Urology, Mayo Clinic, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota, U.S.A.

Robert B. Nadler Department of Urology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A.

Stephen Y. Nakada Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin, U.S.A.

Camran Nezhat Stanford University Medical School, Palo Alto, California, U.S.A.

Ceana Nezhat Nezhat Medical Center, Endometriosis Clinic, Atlanta, Georgia, U.S.A.

Farr Nezhat Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York, U.S.A.

Christopher S. Ng Minimally Invasive Urology Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California, U.S.A.

Abraham A. Nisim Department of Surgery, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California, U.S.A.

Rene Sotelo Noguera Section of Laparoscopic and Minimally Invasive Surgery, Department of Urology, "La Floresta" Medical Institute, Caracas, Venezuela

Raul C. Ordorica Division of Urology, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida, U.S.A.

Marcelo A. Orvieto Section of Urology, University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A.

Michael C. Ost Department of Urology, North Shore-Long Island Jewish Medical Center, New Hyde Park, New York, U.S.A.

Michael A. Palese Department of Urology, The Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, New York, U.S.A.

Vito Pansadoro Vincenzo Pansadoro Foundation, Rome, Italy

Sijo Joseph Parekattil Glickman Urological Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.A.

Hiten Patel Institute of Urology and Nephrology, University College London, London, U.K.

James O. Peabody Vattikuti Urology Institute, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan, U.S.A.

Michael Perrotti Capital District Urologic Surgeons, Albany, New York, U.S.A.

Craig A. Peters Department of Urology, Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.

Michael W. Phelan Division University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.

Jeffrey Ponsky Department of Minimally Invasive Surgery, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.A.

Dix P. Poppas Institute for Pediatric Urology, New York Presbyterian Hospital-Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York, U.S.A.

James R. Porter Department of Urology, University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, Washington, U.S.A.

Glenn M. Preminger Division of Urologic Surgery, Comprehensive Kidney Stone Center, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, U.S.A.

Mark Preston Gynecologic Center for Women's Health, Waterbury, Connecticut, U.S.A.

Raymond R. Price Intermountain Healthcare/Salt Lake Clinic, Salt Lake City, Utah, U.S.A.

J. Daniell Rackley Department of Urology, Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, U.S.A.

Raymond R. Rackley Section of Voiding Dysfunction and Female Urology, Glickman Urological Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.A.

Anup P. Ramani Section of Laparoscopy, Department of Urological Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, U.S.A.

Jens J. Rassweiler Department of Urology, SLK Heilbronn Hospital, Heilbronn, Germany

Erick M. Remer Section of Abdominal Imaging, Division of Diagnostic Radiology, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.A.

Harrison K. Rhee, Lahey Clinic Medical Center, Burlington, Massachusetts, U.S.A.

Jerome P. Richie Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.

Lee Richstone Brady Urologic Health Center, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, U.S.A.

Michael D. Rollins Intermountain Healthcare/Salt Lake Clinic, Salt Lake City, Utah, U.S.A.

Jim Ross Center for Female Continence, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of California Los Angeles School of Medicine, Salinas, California, U.S.A.

Jonathan H. Ross Glickman Urological Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.A.

François Rozet Institut Montsouris, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France

Laurent Salomon Service d'Urologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Henri Mondor, Créteil, France

Jeffery W. Saranchuk Department of Urology, Sidney Kimmel Center for Prostate and Urologic Cancers, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York, U.S.A.

Richard M. Satava Department of Surgery, University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, Washington and Advanced Biomedical Technologies, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), Arlington, Virginia, U.S.A.

Stephen J. Savage Department of Urology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, U.S.A.

Charles D. Scales, Jr. Division of Urology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, U.S.A.

Claude Schulman Department of Urology, University Clinics of Brussels, Erasme Hospital, Brussels, Belgium

Peter Schulam Department of Urology, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California, U.S.A.

Philippe Sebe Service d'Urologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Henri Mondor, Créteil, France

Anthony J. Senagore Department of Colorectal Surgery, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.A.

Arieh L. Shalhav Section of Urology, University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A.

Bijan Shekarriz Department of Urology, SUNY, Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, New York, U.S.A.

Iqbal S. Shergill Institute of Urology and Nephrology, University College London, London, U.K.

Steven J. Shichman Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, University of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, Wisconsin, U.S.A.

Dinesh Singh Section of Laparoscopic and Robotic Surgery, Glickman Urological Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.A.

Arthur Smith Department of Urology, North Shore-Long Island Jewish Medical Center, New Hyde Park, New York, U.S.A.

Massimiliano Spaliviero Section of Laparoscopic and Robotic Surgery, Glickman Urological Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.A.

W. Patrick Springhart Division of Urology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, U.S.A.

John P. Stein Department of Urology, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, U.S.A.

Marshall L. Stoller Department of Urology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, U.S.A.

Urs E. Studer Department of Urology, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland

Li-Ming Su Brady Urological Institute, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.

Marto Sugiono Department of Urology, SLK Heilbronn Hospital, Heilbronn, Germany

Richard Sutherland Glickman Urological Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.A

Kazuo Suzuki Department of Urology, Shintoshi Clinic, Iwata, Shizuoka, Japan

Robert M. Sweet Department of Urologic Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, U.S.A.

Dogu Teber Department of Urology, SLK Heilbronn Hospital, Heilbronn, Germany

David A. Tolley Scottish Lithotriptor Centre, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, U.K.

Karim A. Touijer Department of Urology, Sidney Kimmel Center for Prostate and Urologic Cancers, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York, U.S.A.

Edouard Trabulsi Department of Urology, Sidney Kimmel Center for Prostate and Urologic Cancers, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York, U.S.A.

Ingolf Tuerk Lahey Clinic Medical Center, Institute of Urology, Burlington, Massachusetts, U.S.A.

Paul K. Tulikangas Division of Urogynecology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Connecticut, Hartford, Connecticut, U.S.A.

Osamu Ukimura Section of Laparoscopic and Robotic Surgery, Glickman Urological Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.A.

Guy Vallancien Institut Montsouris, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France

Roland F. P. van Velthoven Department of Urology, Institut Jules Bordet and CHU Saint-Pierre, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium

Ioannis M. Varkarakis The James Buchanan Brady Urological Institute, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.

Joseph C. Veniero Section of Abdominal Imaging, Division of Diagnostic Radiology, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.A.

Ramakrishna Venkatesh Minimally Invasive Urology, Division of Urology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, U.S.A.

Alessandro Volpe Division of Urology, Department of Surgical Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital and the University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Joseph R. Wagner Department of Urology, Beth Israel Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, New York, U.S.A.

McClellan M. Walther National Institute of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, U.S.A.

David S. Wang Department of Urology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.

Christopher A. Warlick The James Buchanan Brady Urological Institute, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.

Howard N. Winfield Department of Urology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, Iowa, U.S.A.

Ashutosh Tewari Robotic Prostatectomy and Urologic Oncology Outcomes, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, U.S.A.

J. Stuart Wolf, Jr. Division of Minimally Invasive Urology, Department of Urology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, U.S.A.

SECTION

BASIC CONSIDERATIONS

CHAPTER

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