Gynecologic Disorders That Involve The Lower Urinary Tract

Beginning early in embryonic development of the female fetus, the cloaca is divided by the urorectal septum. The urogenital sinus then develops into the bladder, urethra, and lower vagina. The ureters continue to develop from the ureteric bud and join with the developing kidney. This early primordial relationship illustrates the intimate association between the lower urinary tract and the female reproductive system. As a consequence, pathologic processes affecting one system may inevitably involve both systems. It is imperative among surgeons of the female pelvis to have a thorough knowledge of the relationship shared between the gynecologic and uro-logic systems.

Pregnancy status should be determined in all females of reproductive age undergoing surgery. Any suspicion of a pelvic mass, abdominal enlargement, or enlarged uterus should prompt the discussion of the patient's pregnancy status. This is the most common form of pelvic mass in a reproductive age female.

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