Howard Evans and Michael G Hobart

Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, University of Alberta, Alberta, Canada

INTRODUCTION

Step 7: Entrapment and Removal of

INDICATIONS AND CONTRAINDICATIONS

Specimen

Contraindication of Laparoscopic

Step 8: Hemostasis and Closure

Retroperitoneal Radical Nephrectomy

TECHNICAL CAVEATS AND TIPS

PREOPERATIVE PREPARATION

SPECIFIC MEASURES TAKEN TO AVOID

PROCEDURE

COMPLICATIONS

Step 1: Patient Positioning

Complications Related to Retroperitoneal

Step 2: Retroperitoneal Access

Access and Insufflation

Step 3: Balloon Dilation of the

Complications Related to the Renal

Retroperitoneal Space

Hilar Dissection

Step 4: Port Placement

Complications Related to Renal

Step 5: Dissection and Ligation of the

Mobilization

Renal Hilum

SUMMARY

Step 6: Mobilization of the Kidney

REFERENCES

Despite skepticism, the technique of retroperitoneal laparoscopic radical nephrectomy evolved into a standardized approach, which resolved problems related to retroperitoneal landmark recognition.

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