Index

Abdomen adhesions, 381 cavity, hand incision, 789 extraperitoneal drain, 7 fascia, anterior, 971 hysterectomy, 411 surgery, 242, 971

preparation for, 188 viscera, inspection of, 5 wall, 432 anatomy, 432 injury, risk of, 1036 layers, 68, 435 lifting method, 813, 818 metastases, 817

neuralgias, body mass index, 930-931 parietal peritoneum of, 433 relaxation, 456

vasculature, by transillumination, 1036 Abdominal wall lift (AWL), 813, 818

cardiovascular and respiratory effects, 976 mechanical, 976 Abdominopelvic inspection, 396 Absorbable fibrin adhesive bandage

(AFAB), 94 Accessory pudendal arteries, 738 Acellular bladder submucosa (ABS), 1056 Acellular collagen matrix, 1057 Acidosis, 33, 475

See also Acidosis fetal, 987 Acoustic coupling, 1001 Acute appendicitis, 984

diagnosis of, 989 Acute febrile abdominal pain, 941 Acute ischemic necrosis, postoperative, 404 Acute renal failure, 40 Acute-phase response (APR), 954 molecules in, 956

tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptors in, 956

Adenocarcinoma cells, 468

prostatic, 631 Adhesions, incidence and severity of intraperitoneal, 479 Adhesive glycoproteins, 92 Adnexal masses, 944, 991 benign, characteristics of, 944 complications of, 991 management strategies of, 991 during pregnancy, 991 symptoms of, 991 Adnexal torsion, 991, 992 during pregnancy, 991 in postmenopausal women, 944 risk of, 991

Adrenal gland anterio-medial, 17 arterial supply of, 207 bleeding in, 198 dissection of, 17, 198 injury to, 198

left, retroperitoneal approach to, 17 left, transperitoneal approach to, 16-17 lesions of, 223 malignancy, 468

laparoscopic management of, 187 mass, case reports of, 467 metastasis, 468 mobilization of, 16, 123 parenchyma, 212, 1003 posterio-medial, dissection of, 17 retroperitoneal approach, 17 lateral, 190 posterior, 190 right, retroperitoneal approach to, 16 right, transperitoneal approach to, 15-16 transperitoneal lateral approach, 189

advantages and disadvantages of, 189 tumors, 757

hormonally active, 223 vein, intraoperative ultrasound of, 212 venous drainage, 478 vessels, divisions of, 207 artery, 196 cancer, 224 carcinoma, 825 Adrenalectomy, 223, 578-579

for adrenocortical carcinoma, 466 bilateral da Vinci® assisted, 892 laparoscopic, 891

indications and contraindications of, 825 left, 884

for malignant adrenal lesions, 468 metastasis, solitary, 465-466 open, 187, 225 partial drawback of, 209

for nonfunctioning incidentaloma, 210 right, 885 robotic, 891

supragastric left-sided, 200 thoracoscopic transdiaphragmatic, 201 clinical experience, 831 patient selection, 827-828 surgical technique, 828-831 Adrenalectomy, laparoscopic, 1002 for benign disease, 226-228 bilateral, 186 for cancer, 469

contraindications for, 187-188, 226, 825

equipment and set-up, 19S

hand-assisted, 2O1

indications for, 1S6, 22S, 226

lateral, retroperitoneal, 199

lateral, transperitoneal technique of, 19S

for malignancy, 469

for metastatic disease, 1S7

for pheochromocytoma, 1S6, 989-990

postoperative care in, 196

during pregnancy, 1SS

right-sided transperitoneal, 194-195

robotic applications, 201

safety of, 467

technique, 19S

transperitoneal patient positioning in, 194 Adrenal hyperplasia, 209 Adrenal lesions computed tomography scanning of, 224 diagnosis, 22S evaluation, 224

magnetic resonance imaging of, 224 Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC), 187, 466, 469

adrenalectomy for, 466 staging system for, 466 treatment of, 825 Advanced robotics and telemanipulator system for minimally invasive surgery (ARTEMIS) system, 110 Aerosolization, 468 of tumor cells, 749 AESOP® (Computer Motion, California), 107,

109, 142, 172, 211, 266, S40, 1092 Air embolism, risk of, 6 Aldosteroma, treatment of, 825 Aldosterone adenoma, 21S Aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA), 207 Aldosteronomas, 225 medical management of, 224 resection of, 186 Alias®, computer graphics animation in, 1118 Alken's needle insertion, 282 Allen stirrups (Allen Medical, Ohio), S95 Amyloidosis, 97S

Anatrophic nephrolithotomy, laparoscopic,

98, 28S-284 Anderson-Hynes dismembered pyeloplasty, 160, 847, 887 in adult patients, S06 in pediatric patients, S08 for robotic-assisted cases, S08 trocar positioning in, S06 Androgen replacement therapy, 1084 Anesthesia considerations, 986

Anesthesia (continued) cost of, 1011 induction of, 786 management strategies, 986 simulator, 1116 Angiocatheter, 761, 839 Angiography, 904

Antegrade continent enema (ACE), 662 Anterolateral wall, 432 Anti-inflammatory drugs, nonsteroidal, 973 Antibiotic prophylaxis, 718, 779 Antigen carcinoembryonic, 465 cells, expressing, 1142 genes, recognition, 954 Antigen presenting cells (APCs), 954 Antithromboembolism stockings, 189 Antithrombotic prophylaxis, 626 Antituberculosis drugs, 243 Aortic bifurcation, 620 Aortorenal bypass, laparoscopic, 841-842 Aponeurosis, 23, 433 Appendectomy, 989 laparoscopic, 6, 8 Aprotinin, bovine, 94 Argon beam coagulator (ABC), 69, 98, 249,

269, 331, 343 Arterial blood gas, 928 Arterial resistance, 30 Arterial vasospasm, 341 Arteriovenous, fistula development, 132 Aspirator, 71

systems, ultrasonic, 198 Asynchronous transfer mode (ATM), 1093 Atherosclerosis, 479

Atherosclerotic renovascular disease, 523 Atracurium(tm), 626 Atraumatic graspers, 69, 719 Atraumatic ring clamp, 284 Atraumatic suction graspers, 199 Auscultation, 828

Autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura, 990

Automated endoscopic system for optimal positioning. See AESOP®. Autopsy, 842, 1074

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), 241, 243-244, 261 Autotransplantation, laparoscopic-asissted, 162

Axial force control, 907

Bair Hugger (Augustine Medical Inc.,

Minnesota), 839 Balloon cannula, 514 dilation, 121 Balloon dilator, 255, 514 Balloon mounted tip, 514 Balloon trocar, 68 Beam radiation therapy, 718 Benign disease, laparoscopic adrenalectomy for, 226-229 Benign epithelial neoplasms, 945 Benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH), obstructive symptoms of, 859 Benign tumors, of reproductive age women, 940

Beriplast P® (Aventis Behring, Germany), 93 Bernstein anastomosis, 650 Bile duct injury, 1028, 1045 Biliary disease, symptoms of, 988 Bioadhesive agents, 101 Biocol® (LFB-Lille, France), 93 Biologic hemostatic sealant, 528 Biopsy in children, 250 diagnostic, 555 incisional, 557 laparoscopic, 251 open, 251 prostate, 108 transjugular kidney, 251 Bladder augmentation, 164, 382 intestinal segments for, 1067, 1075 laparoscopic, 1055 Bladder cancer, 619-620, 637, 670 Bladder cuff excision, 166, 575 contraindications of, 576 dissection of, open, 576 indications of, 576 and laparoscopic radical nephroureterectomy, 886 management of, 565-566 Bladder defects, 413 Bladder diverticulectomy, 287 advantages and disadvantages, 857 complications, 857 history of, 855

indications and contraindications, 855-856 laparoscopic, 855 surgical technique, 856-857 Bladder drainage, postoperative, 386 Bladder flap reimplantation, 851 Bladder injury, 947 diagnosis of, 1038 Bladder integrity, 413

Bladder mobilization and cystotomy, 385-386 Bladder mucosa, 863 Bladder neck, 396, 730 anterior aspect of, 708 contractures, 878 dissection of, 684, 718 incision, 684 intracorporeal, 150 palpation of, 708 posterior, 152, 708, 721 reconstruction of, 684 suspensions, 165 suture, 404

transection, 708, 720-721 Bladder neck-sparing technique, 684 Bladder outlet obstructive symptoms, 1117 Bladder perforation, 763

intraperitoneal, 164 Bladder reconstruction laparoscopic, 164 muscular, 146 Bladder smooth muscle cells, 1068 Bladder stab wounds, 1038 Bladder stricture rate, 738 Bladder submucosa coated with urothelial and detrusor cells (BSCC), 1056 Bladder surgery, laparoscopic technique to, 669 Bladder sutures, 403 Bladder symptomatology, 940 Bladder tumor, 577, 749

Blood coagulation, 92 Blood gas, arterial, 928 Blood tests, preoperative routine, 511 Blood transfusion, 529, 980 Blue Dragon® robot, 1121 Blunt cannula, 972 Blunt dissection, 123, 443, 971 Blunt finger dissection, 547, 711 Blunt tip trocar, 255, 547 Bluntip® cannula (U.S. Surgical, Connecticut), 836

Bluntip® trocar (Origin MedSystems), 121 Bluntport® (U.S. Surgical, Connecticut), 706 Body mass index (BMI), 718, 892, 1133 Bolheal® (Kaketsuken Pharmaceuticals,

Japan), 93 Bosniak classification, for renal cyst lesions, 262 Bovine aprotinin, 94 Bowel anastomosis, 670 Bowel injury, 441, 1030, 1036 abdominal access-related, 911-913 electrocautery, 915-917 Hasson's method, 913 laparoscopic, 915 etiology of, 914

pelvic lymph node dissection, 1038 non-access-related, 913-915 risk factor for, 918 thermal, 915, 916 trocar-induced, 912 Bowel insufflation, 911 Bowel lacerations, laparoscopic management of, 1032

Bowel obstruction, complications of, 1040 Bowel perforation, 915

mechanical, 475 Bowel segment, isolated, detubularization and reconfiguration of, 384 Bowel surgery, laparoscopic indications and contraindications, 643 operative techniques, 644-646 right colectomy, 644 sigmoid/left colectomy, 644-646 perioperative care, 643 Bozzini Phillip, 3 Brachial plexus, 923, 926, 929-931 Brachytherapy, 1079 Bradydysrhythmias, 37 Brain damage, anoxic, 357 Bricker-type ureteroileal anastomoses, 651, 670

Bronchopulmonary dysplasia, 758 Bruck julius, 4 Bruck's technique, 4 Burch colposuspension, 393

gasless laparoscopy, 399 Burch laparoscopic, 397 abdominal wall vascular injury in, 404 acute ischemic necrosis of, 404 advantage of, 399, 404 anatrophic nephrolithotomy, 98, 284 aortorenal bypass, 841-842 appendectomy, 6, 8 appendicovesicostomy, 662

transperitoneal approach, 473-474 augmentation ureterocystoplasty, 1072 bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy, 638 bladder augmentation, 381-388

bladder injuries, 412 blood loss with, 403

boari flap ureteroneocystostomy, 851-852

bowel injury, 851

comparison of, 401-402

complications of, 398, 402-405

extraperitoneal, 398, 399

hernia formation in, 13

injury rate in, 403

lower urinary tract (LUT) injury rate, 403 and open procedures, hospital cost for, 1021 and Raz procedure, comparison of, 400 suture technique of, 399 transperitoneal, 398 versus bone-anchored sling, 402 versus open Burch colposuspension, 400-401

versus tension-free vaginal tape suburethral sling Burch sutures, 397

parasagittal view of, 395 Burch-Tanagho colposuspension, 393, 400

Cadaver kidney grafts, 354 Cadaveric fascia, 402 Cadaveric renal transplantation, 337, 362 Calicoplasty, laparoscopic, 161 Calicorrhaphy, laparoscopic, 161 Calyceal diverticula epithelium, management of, 332-333 identification, 329 imaging, 326

infundibulum, identification and management of, 331-332 treatment selection, 327 types, 325 Calyceal diverticulectomy laparoscopic technique, 329-335 cystoscopic placement of ureteral catheter, 329

drain placement and exit, 9 epithelium, management of, 332-333 excision of overlying renal parenchyma,

330-331 identification, 329

instruments, materials, and devices utilized for, 10 nephrolithotomy, 331 obliteration of diverticular cavity, 8-9 operative exposure, 330 Cancer, 734-736, 1083 cells, dissemination of, 1063 cervical, 945 ovarian, 173 surgery, 1039 Cannula, 435

for pediatric cases, 759 Capnography, 33 Carcinoembryonic antigen, 465 Carcinoma, 56, 62, 632 adrenocortical, 187 gallbladder, 745 hepatocellular, 751 ovarian, 751 squamous cell, 750 Carcinoma in situ (CIS), 573 Carcinomatosis peritoneal, 468

tumor, 468 Cardiac dysrhythmias, 37 Cardiac tamponade syndrome, 934 Cardiopulmonary complications, 813 Cardiopulmonary disorders, 977 Cardiopulmonary morbidity, 980 Cardiovascular monitoring, 979 Cardiovascular and respiratory effects, 976 Carotid body, 217 Carter-Thomason® fascial closure device (Inlet Medical, Minnesota), 12, 548, 885 needle, 300, 796 needle grasper, 72 port-closure device, 863 Catheter diameter of, 434 patency, 442

placing by Y-Tec procedure, 440 polyurethane, 434 Tenckhoff, 440 transurethral, 1068 ureteral, 532, 566 Caudal aorta, dissection of, 607 Cautery injury, in chidren, 761 Cavotomy, 36

CCD. See Charged coupled device Cecocolocystoplasty, 387-388 Celioscopy, 5 Celiotomy, 998 prostatic transitional carcinoma,

632-633 transitional, carcinoma, 166 Cell-adhesion substrate, 1054 Cell-mediated immune properties, 956 Cell-seeded graft materials, 1056 Cellular collagen matrix, electron microscopy of, 1056 Cellulose oxidized, 96, 97 spinal cord compression of, 97 swelling of, 97 Center for Minimal Access Surgery (CMAS),

139, 1092 Cerebral ischemia, 39 Cerebral vascular engorgement, 39 Cerebrovascular accident (CVA), 1133 Cervical cancer, 945 Charged coupled device (CCD) chip, 78

miniaturization of, 79 Chemotherapy, primary, 611 adjuvant, 614 disadvantages of, 612, 613 Chicken thoraco-abdominal cavity, 879 Childhood hematologic cancer, 986 Chimney effect, 468 Cholecystectomy, 979 laparoscopic, 130, 745, 813, 979, 1061 robotic, 172 Cholecystectomy, laparoscopic, 8, 818, 988-989, 1061 claims related to, 1028 risks prior to, 1027 for symptomatic cholelithiasis, 989 vascular injury in, 1028 video performance metrics on, 1123 Chromophobe carcinomas, 519 Chronic obstructive pulmonory disease (COPD), 976, 1133

Chronic renal failure (CRF), 431 Chronic renal insufficiency (CRI), 1133 Chylomicrons, layer of, 449 Chylothorax, 935 Chyluria classification, 448 clinical presentation and evaluation, 449 clots of, 449

conditions mimicking, 448 etiopathogenesis, 447-449 treatment of, algorithm, 449 Cirrhosis, 746

Cleveland technique, trocar positioning in, 690 Clips, titanium, 70 CloseSure™ system (Inlet Medical,

Minnesota), 300 Clotting factors, synthesis of, 985 Clutton's urethral dilator, 286 CO2 insufflation immunological effects of, 958 physiological effects of, 958 CO2 pneumoperitoneum for, 987 Coagulation, 985 argon beam, 69, 331 disorders, 972 necrosis, 916 Coagulative necrosis, 1081 Codman surgical strip (Codman and

Shurtleff, Inc., Massachusetts), 724 Cold saline infusion, endoscopic retrograde, 837-838

Colectomy laparoscopic, steps for, 644 Collagen implantation, 1054 microfibrillar, 96 protein component of skin, 96 Collagen-rich matrices, 1054 Collins knife, 780

Collision detection algorithms, 1107 Collision polygons, 1110 Cancer colon, 1039 Colonic injury, 913, 914 Colposuspensions Burch, 393

laparoscopic, 1-2, 393, 394-396 Computed tomography, 260, 935, 1005 and creatinine level, 48 developments in, 48 helical, 48

parenchymal phase, 48 protocol for laparoscopic surgical planning, 48 spatial resolution, 48 spiral, 48

Computer-aided surgical systems, 1091 Computer-assisted robotic

Heller myotomy, 172 Computer-based simulators, 1116 Concomitant adrenalectomy, 526 Congestive heart failure

(CHF), 1133 Conn's syndrome clinical manifestations of, 225 symptoms of, 225 Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) catheter, 432 in abdominal wall, 432

Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) catheter, (continued) alignment of, 439 cross section of, 438 cuff of, 434 designs of, 434 insertion into pelvis, 438 laparoscopic-assisted implantation of, 439 advantages, 438

Hasson cut-down technique for, 438 instrumentation used for, 438 patients preparation for placement of, 438 technique for, 438 videolaparoscopy-assisted implementation of, 439

insertion of, 439 technique for, 439 Contralateral metachronous tumors formation, risk of, 209 Cooling sheath, laparoscopic, 839-840 Cooper's ligament, 22, 396, 458 Coronary artery disease (CAD), 1133 CoSeal™ (Baxter Healthcare Corp., California, U S.A.), 101, 333 Costasis (Angiotech Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Canada), 93 advantage of, 95 fibrin-sealant variant, 95 in orthopedic surgical field, 95 plasma collecting system for, 95 Cough stress test (CST), 394 Cranial pedicles dissection, 688

and seminal vesicle dissection, 684 Creteil technique, trocar positioning in, 689 Crohn's disease, 965

Crosseal (American Red Cross, Washington,

D.C.), 93 Cryolesion monitoring, 549, 550 Cryomachine (Accuprobe®), (Ethicon, New

Jersey), 548 Cryopobes, 6-7 Cryotherapy, 524 Cryptorchidism, 767

laparoscopic management of, 9 Culdoscopy, 7 Cushing's adenoma, 209 biochemical diagnosis of, 210 treatment of, 825 Cushing's syndrome, 186 cause of, 209 clinical features, 225 etiology, 225 symptoms, 225 Cyanoacrylate sealants, 101 Cyst manipulation, laparoscopic, 534 Cystectomy, 803 laparoscopic, 166 radical, 651-652, 893 Cystic fluid, 504 Cystic kidney diseases, 431 Cystic lesions, 534 Cystic renal lesions, 521 Cystogram, 725 Cystography, 1073 Cystoplasty, augmentation, 388 Cystoprostatectomy, 166

laparoscopy-assisted, 894 robot-assisted radical, 894 Cystoprostatectomy laparoscopic radical, 651 Cystorrhaphy, laparoscopic sutured, 163 Cystoscope, 4, 396, 403, 1073 Cystourethrogram, 920 Cytokines, 954 Cytoreductive surgery, 497 Cytotoxic agents, shock waves on, 1080 Cytotoxicity

Kupffer cell-mediated, 957 monocyte-mediated, 957

da Vinci® Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical,

Inc.), 10, 304, 306, 717, 719, 1010 Decker, albert, 7

Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency

(DARPA), 1100 Delayed graft function (DGF), etiology, 354 Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), 954

effect on, 958-959 Dendrimers, polypropylenimine, 1142 Denonvilliers' fascia (DF), 24, 708, 920 anterior layer of, 683 incision of, 687 Dermabond® (Ethicon, Inc., New Jersey), 101 Desormeaux antonin, 4 Desflurane™, 626 Dexon™, 140

Diabetes mellitus (DM), 1133 Diabetic nephropathy, 431 Dialysis, indication for, 433 Diaphragmatic-adrenal-renal channel, 200 Diastolic blood pressure, 928 Diathermy, 193, 238 Dietl's crisis, 253 symptoms, 254 Digital camera technology, development in, 79 Digital dissection, 286 Digital fusion technologies, 1041 Digital monitors, high-resolution, 78 Digital rectal examination (DRE) simulator, for prostate cancer, 1116 Digital still cameras, in image documentation and editing, 80 Digital still images, quality of, 80 Digital video (DV) camera, 78 Digital videocystoscope (Olympus America,

New York), 79 Diphtheria, 1142

Distal gastrectomy, gasless laparoscopic surgery for, hand-assisted, 813 Distal obliterate ureteral stricture, treatment of, 372 Distal ureter, 287 dissection, open, 576 laparoscopic stapling of, 576 management of, 565 tumors, 580 Distal ureterectomy, 575, 852 contraindications of, 576 indications of, 576 Distal uterosacral ligaments, 946 Diuresis, copious, 839 Diverticular cavity, obliteration of, 8-9 DNA transfection efficiency, 1142 Donor kidney transplantation, 337

Donor nephrectomy, 978 laparoscopic, 893 robotic, indications and operative techniques for, 893 Doppler probe laparoscopic, 426 Doppler ultrasound, 1002-1003

intraoperative, laparoscopic color, 211 Dorsal lithotomy, 412, 893 Dorsal vascular complex, 738 Dorsal-vein complex (DVC), 698 coagulation of, 682 transection of, 682 Dorsolumbar fascia (DLF), 450 Douglas, aponeurosis of, 23

Douglas, pouch of, 20 Drug(s)

antituberculosis, 243 delivery systems, 1141 design, rational, 1149 Dubois francois, 8 Duncan knot, 140

Duploject® Preparation and Application System (Baxter Healthcare Corporation, Illinois), 94 Duration of hospital stay (DOS) determination of, 1133 predication model, 1134 and preoperative patient parameters, 1132, 1138

Dye materials, for laparoscopy suturing, 150 Dysrhythmias, cardiac, 37

Ectoderm, 944 Ectopic kidneys, 5

Ectopic testes, abdominal medial, 775 effects of, 31 efficacy of, 613 Electrical prostate morcellator (VersaCut®

Lumenis, California), 590 Electrical tissue morcellation, 588 Electro-mechanical Steiner morcellator, 587 Electrocautery injury, 1033-1035 insulation failure injuries with, 1034 microprocessor-controlled, 1034 Electrocautery, 7 meticulous hemostasis with, 488 risks of, 1033 shears, 792 Electrocautery injury laparoscopic methods of, 1034 Electrocoagulation, 1093 Electrolytes, in serum, 928 Electrosurgery injury, 1045 Electrosurgery laparoscopic, potential complications of, 915 Electrothermal injury, 915, 1034 Emphysema, subcutaneous, 37, 250 Endo-Avitene™ (MedChem Products,

Massachusetts), 96, 1036 Endocatch bag (U.S. Surgical, Connecticut),

126, 220, 305, 421, 514 Endocatch device, 123 Endocatch Gold (U.S. Surgical, Connecticut), 588

advantages of, 588 deployment suture on, 589 integrity of, 590

Endo-GIA staplers (U.S. Surgical,

Connecticut), 196, 488, 640, 829, 830 applications of, 656 Endo-GIA universal device (U.S. Surgical,

Connecticut), 1010 Endo Retractor (U.S. Surgical, Connecticut), 837

EndoClip II, U.S. Surgical, 132 EndoClose™ (U.S. Surgical, Connecticut), 140 Endodissector, retraction of, 682 EndoEye™ technology, 79 Endometriosis, 164, 945-946 laparoscopic visualization of, 946 medical therapy of, 946 treatment for, 946 Endopath bladeless trocar, 719 Endopath® Pneumoneedle (Ethicon Endo-Surgery Inc., Ohio), 719 Endopath Optiview (Ethicon Endo-Surgery,

Ohio), 425 Endopelvic fascia, 22, 720

incision of, 682 Endophotography, 7 Endophytic tumors, 558 Endopouch® Retriever (Ethicon

Endo-Surgery, Inc., Ohio), 722 Endopyelotomy, 313, 314

retrograde, 318 Endoscopic camera systems, 78 Endoscopic carts, 86 Endoscopic linear stapling device, 791 Endoscopic loop ligature, 140 Endoscopic retrograde cold saline infusion, 837-838

Endoscopic spoon biopsy forceps, 618 Endoscopic stapling device, 70, 793

malfunctioning of, 904 Endoscopic suturing technique, 682 Endoshears laparoscopic, 307 Endostitch® (U.S.Surgical, Connecticut), 71,

221, 372, 877, 1056 Endothelial cell damage, 92 Endotracheal tube anesthesia, 247 Endovascular stapler device, applications of, 237

EndoWrist® robotic instruments, 171, 719 End-stage renal disease (ESRD), 431 causes of, 431 population, 432 treatment, 432 in United States, 431 Enterocystoplasty, 628 laparoscopic procedures, 382 bowel segment in, 383-384 intraoperative complication, 387 port placement in, 382-383 postoperative management of, 386 open, 382 bladder and bowel function of, 388 operative time for, 388 preoperative preparation for, 382 Epidermal growth factor (EGF), 1068 Epigastric artery, 907-908, 1036 Epithelial tumors, 519 Escherichia coli, 243 Esophagectomy, 827 Ethicon needle driver, 71 Exit™ (Advanced Surgical, New Jersey), 140

Extracorporeal high energy tissue tripsy, 1081 Extracorporeal knotting, 71, 164 Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy

(ESWL), 279, 960 Extraperitoneal approach, patient position in, 605

Extraperitoneal ascending technique

Sœ-Heilbronn technique Extraperitoneal space preparation, 606

trocar placement in, 607 Extravesical reimplantations laparoscopic, 780

Fascia gerota, 451 Fasciectomy, 451 Femoral neuropathy, 930-931 Fenger plasty, 3

pyeloplasty, 299, 890 Fiber optic network, terrestrial, 1093 Fibrin clot, 92 monomers, 93 preparations of, 94 sealant adhesive properties of, 91 applications of, 91, 528 as bioadhesive, 91 components of, 94 purification and fractionation for, 91 quality of, 91 tensile strength of, 91 Fibrinogen clinical use of, 91 soluble blood component, 93 substrates, clinical use of, 91 Fibrinotherm heating and stirring device, 94 Fibroids, 940

Fibroinflammatory pseudomembrane, 538 Fibromuscular dysplasia, mild, 339 Fibrosis, retroperitoneal, 163 Fibularis muscles, 925 Fistula, 946

development, arteriovenous, 132 Floating kidneys, 162, 253 FloSeal® Matrix (Bartex

Healthcare Corporation, California), 94, 331, 724, 918 Focalseal-L (Focal, Inc., Massachusetts), 101 Foley Y-V plasty, 299 Fowler—Stephens orchidopexy single-stage, 773 two stage, 773-776 French pigtail catheter (Cook Urological,

Indiana), 838 French red rubber catheter tubing, 549 French Society of Gynecological Endoscopy, vascular injury in, 902 Fresh frozen plasma (FFP), 975-977 Furosemide therapy chronic, 52

Gall bladder carcinoma, 745 Gall stone pancreatitis, risk of, 989 Gas collections, extraperitoneal, 37 Gas insufflation tubing, 439 Gasless laparoscopic surgery, 813, 987 Burch bladder neck suspension, 814

cardiopulmonary dysfunction, 818 clinical study of, 818 live donor nephrectomy, 814 pelvic lymph node dissection, 814 renal biopsy, 814 respiratory function, 818 techniques of, 815 varicocelectomy, 814 Gasless laparoscopy-assisted radical nephrectomy, concept of, 814 Gasless retroperitoneoscopic live donor nephrectomy, disadvantages of, 815 Gastric decompression, 419 Gastric/duodenal injuries, 917 Gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD), 1133

Gastrointestinal anastomosis (GIA) stapler,

235, 384. See also Endo-GIA. Gastrophrenic ligament, 200 Gastroscope, fiber optic, 7 Gelatin granules, 528 Gelatin matrix, 95 Gelfoam® (Pfizer, New York), 94, 98 GelPort® (Applied Medical Resources,

California), 494, 788, 1010 Gene therapy, delivery systems for, 1142 Genital tumors, 758 Genitourinary system, 1053 Gerota's fascia, 121, 200, 343 dissection of, 16 layer of, anterior, 235 Gleason score, 682, 734 Glioma tumors, 1082 Glomerular filtration rate (GFR), 431, 530 Glomerulonephritis, 431 Glomus jugular tumors, 217 Glove-like input devices, 170 Glycoproteins, adhesive, 92 Gold nanoparticles, 1142, 1143 Gonadoblastoma, 758 Grasper, laparoscopic, 772 Gynecologic procedures, 814 disorders, 939

evaluation, preoperative, 939-940 laparoscopic procedures, 991-992 lower urinary tract (LUT) injury in, 403 pathology, 130 procedures, 373, 946-947 surgery ureteral and bladder injuries in, 941-942

Halstedian method, for surgical training, 1148

Hand-assisted dissection, benefits of, 800 Hand-assisted laparoscopic (HAL) versus open donor nephrectomy, 788, 794 Hand-assisted laparoscopic nephrectomy (HALN), 785 complications, 795 contraindications, 786 dissection technique for, 790 equipment used, 787-788 for functional renal masses, 786 hand incision configurations in, 788 indications for, 786 in obese patients, 786 for renal procedures, 785 reoperative preparation in, 786

Hand-assisted laparoscopy (HAL), 295, 746, 918

advantage of, 804, 806 complications of, 803-804 donor nephrectomy series, 802 nephroureterectomy, 807 partial nephrectomy, 806-807 radical nephrectomy, 805-806 selection of patients for, 808 Haptica ProMis® trainer, 1123 Haptics, 1103-1104

Harmonic® scalpel (Ethicon Endosurgery

Inc., Ohio), 74, 219, 340, 771 Hassan technique, 266 Hasson cannula, 425, 603, 760 Hasson technique, 235, 306, 682, 907 Hautmann ileal neobladder, 655 Head-mounted displays (HMDs), 1111 Heilbronn laparoscopic radical port positions in, 682 prostatectomy, 691 technique, 679 trocar positioning in, 690 training program, 698 Heimlich valve tube, 796 Heineke-Mickulicz repair, 299, 847 Helium insufflation, 34 Helix Hydro-jet® (ERBE, Tubingen,

Germany), 537, 1062 Heller myotomy, computer-assisted robotic, 172 Hem-O-Lok® clips (Week Closure Systems, North Carolina), 627, 684, 722, 1010 Hemaseel (Haemacure Corp., Canada), 93 Hematuria, 247, 250-251 Hemicolectomy, 718 Heminephrectomy, 847-848 for nonfunctioning kidney, 847 for renal cell carcinoma, 847 for renal mass, 847 Hemithorax, ipsilateral, 828 Hemodialysis (HD), 431, 530 Hemodialysis patients chronic, 502 Hemolytic uremic syndrome, 977 Hemorrhage complications, 39, 526 delayed, 806 Hemostasis, 123, 283, 527-528, 804 chemical augmentation of, 1036 coagulation cascade for, 92 parenchymal, 527 platelets for, 92 tissue factors of, 92 Hemostatic agents, 71 biologic and synthetic, 101 laparoscopic armamentarium of, 95 Hemostatic clamps, 971 Hemostatic clips, 8, 538 Hemostatic energy source, 98 Hemostatic fibrin-sealant powder

(HFSP), 94 Hemostatic modalities, 771 Hemostatic plug, 92 Hemothorax, acute, 935 Heminephrectomy, in horseshoe kidneys, 847 Hepatobiliary, splenic/pancreatic injury,

917-918 Hepatocellular carcinoma, 751

Hereditary pheochromocytoma syndromes,

217 Hernia extraction site, 357 formation, 997

prevention of, 652 postoperative, risk of, 1038 repair, 459, 460

surgery, postoperative care for, 458 symptoms of, 1038 Hernia repair, laparoscopic, 455-456 Herniorrhaphy, laparoscopic, 455, 1038 Herniorrhaphy, laparoscopic surgery for, 813 High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), 1082, 1085, 1147 for benign prostatic enlargement, 1083 extracorporeal, 1082 indications, 1082-1083 High-definition television (HDTV), 78, 82 High-definition video systems, 82, 83 High-energy shock wave (HESW) tissue tripsy, 1081 clinical application of, 1082 effects of, 1081 High-speed electrical laparoscopic (HSEL)

morcellator, 590 Hilar clamping time, 531, 533 Hilar dissection, 123 Hilar tumor, 534-535 Hilar vessels, stripping of, 451 Holmium laser, 860 Hopkins® II (Karl Storz, California), 884 Horseshoe kidney extirpative surgery on, 847 laparoscopic pyeloplasty in, 845 extraperitoneal, 846 hand-assisted, 846 retroperitoneal approach for, 846 transperitoneal approach for, 846 Hulka tenaculum device, 948 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), 975 Human leucocyte antigen (HLA) locus, 954 Human papilloma virus, 945 Hydro-Jet® (Erbe), 1062, 1065 dissection, 1061, 1063 technology, 1064 clinical application of, 537-538 for nerve-sparing approach, 1065 retroperitoneal dissection in, principle of, 1063

in surgical field, 1061 in urologic surgery, 1062 Hydrodissection for gynecologic pelvic procedures, 1061 indication for, 1062 principle of, 1062 Hydrogels, 101

Hydronephrotic collecting system, 848 Hydronephrotic kidney, 232 Hydronephrotic pelvis, 14 Hydronephrotic renal moiety, 847 Hydrosalpinx, 943 Hyperaldosteronism, 208, 225 Hypercapnia, 31, 36

Hypercortisolism, non-adrenal causes of, 225 Hypertension (HTN), 18, 40, 1133 Hypoechoic fluid filled cavities, 419 Hypogastric plexus, 22, 25 Hypotension, 928

Hypothermia, 40-41, 835 effects, 974 negative effect of, 836 renal. See Renal hypothermia temperature, optimal, 531 Hypothermia, renal, 842 Hypoxemia, 40 Hysterectomy, 940-941 Hysterectomy laparoscopic, 412, 588

Iatrogenic T3-4 disease, 580 Ice slush renal hypothermia, 836-837 Idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis (IRPF), 370-371 causes, 370

laparoscopic approach, 371 ureterolysis for, 370 Idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura, 172 Ileal anastomoses, 854 Ileal conduit, 650-651

open-assisted techniques for, 663 Ileal conduit laparoscopic without cystectomy, 650 Ileal peristalsis, 852 Ileal stoma, creation of, 652 Ileal surgery, bowel preparation for, 853 Ileal ureter replacement, laparoscopic, 852 Ileocolic anastomosis, 644 Ileocystoplasty, 381 Ileovesical anastomosis, 654 free hand suturing of, 390 single-layer, 390 Ileovesicostomy, 389 laparoscopic, 389-390, 654 surgical components of, 389 IIleal ureter replacement laparoscopic, 852-853 Ileovesicostomy formation, laparoscopic Ileovesicostomy, laparoscopic, 654

transperitoneal, 389 Iliac vessels, 21

Immune responses, peritoneal, 750

Immunoglobulin therapy, 990

Immunosuppression, 1057

Implanter Tool™, 435

Infection chronic, renal units with, 242-243

In vitro fertilization (IVF), 424, 943

Inlet® Closure Device (Inlet Medical, Inc.,

Minnesota), 395 InnerDyne® Radial Dilating Step introducer system, 769 Instant Response™ (Valley Lab, Colorado), 1034

Instrument injuries, 1032 Insufflators, accessory devices for, 72 Interfascial dissection, laparoscopic, 25 Interfascial neurovascular dissection, 25 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) staging system, 945 Intestinal injuries, 1037 Intracellular antigens, 954 Intracellular Kupffer cell signaling, 957 Intracellular pathogens, 954 Intracorporeal knotting technique, 164, 684 Intracorporeal suturing, laparoscopic, 177, 511 Intracranial pressure, 39 Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), 424

Intraoperative conversion, indications for, 197 Intraperitoneal drainage, 413 Intraperitoneal onlay mesh (IPOM), 455 Intraperitoneal surgery laparoscopic, in children, 761 Intrathoracic pressure, 31 Intravenous contrast volume, 52 Intravenous pyelogram (IVP), 370 Intravenous urogram (IVU), 253, 419, 1074 Intravesical laparoscopic method, 567 Intuitive Surgical® (Sunnyvale,

California), 107 Ipsilateral adrenal fossa, 521 Ipsilateral colon, 267, 283, 853 Ipsilateral hemiscrotum, 772 Ipsilateral lung, 828 Ipsilateral renal calculi, 314, 1069 Ipsilateral seminal vesicle, 686, 721 Ischemia, 802, 842 Ischemia, chronic and adhesion formation, 971 Ischioprostatic ligaments, 23 Isthmectomy, 846

Ivanissevich, inguinal approach, 425

Jacobaeus Hans Christian, 6 J-hook electrocautery, 620 J-hook laparoscopic electrosurgical, 654 J-stenting, preoperative, 282 Jackson-Pratt drain, 283, 299, 514, 654 Jet propulsion laboratory's telerobotics program, 107 Joule-Thompson principle, 548

Kelly clamp, 856 Ketorolac, intravenous, 256 Kidney blunt dissection of, 488 cancer, 521

carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum, 814 cephalad displacement of, 255 dissection, 10 ectopic, 5 horseshoe, 5, 845 infectious conditions of, 242 mobilization of, 490-491 renal parenchyma of, 1085 retraction of, 199 therapeutic cloning, 1057 transplantation, robotic-assisted, 162 tumors, 1085 Knotting, extracorporeal, 71, 131, 164 Knotting, laparoscopic extracorporeal,

139-140 Kocher's clamps, 72 Kupffer cell signaling, intracellular, 957

Laparofan, 816

Laparolift™ (Tyco-Origin Medsystems Inc.),

813, 816 Laparoscopy diagnostic, 768 Laparoscopic equipment, 1021 cost of, 1010 standards of, 193

Laparoscopic extra-adrenal literature, review of, 220

Laparoscopic force feedback device, 1105 Laparoscopic forceps, 487 Laparoscopic injuries, 99, 1028

foreign body retention, risk for, 1040 Laparoscopic instruments, 1123 Laparoscopic intestinal surgery, component of, 390

Laparoscopic live donor nephrectomies (LLDN), 337 equipment for, 345 hand-assisted, 13, 14 instrumentation for, 341 operating-room configuration for, 341 retroperitoneoscopic, 14, 15 right-sided, 348-349 trocar placement for, 13 Laparoscopic lymphocele drainage, 886 Laparoscopic lymphocele fenestration, complication of, 378 Laparoscopic manipulation, in children, 760-761 pros and cons of, 793 Laparoscopic models, gasless, 749 Laparoscopic nerve- and seminal-sparing cystectomy, 674 Laparoscopic operating room systems, modern, 74 Laparoscopic orthotopic neobladder Laparoscopic paravaginal repair, 398 Laparoscopic partial adrenalectomy (LPA), 207, 1002 contraindications of, 208 feasibility of, 213 operative time for, 213 preoperative investigations of, 210 for recurrent pheochromocytomas, 214 retroperitoneal approach for, 212 safety and efficacy of, 213 surgical techniques of, 211-213 therapeutic concepts of, 208 transperitoneal approach for, 211-213 Laparoscopic pelvic procedures, 394 Laparoscopic pluck technique, 567 Laparoscopic port site risk, 1039 Laparoscopic procedures adhesion formation in, 1040 children to anesthetic response of, 762 complications in, 1018, 1019 cost-effectiveness of, 1010-1014 nongynecologic, 988 operative time for, 1018 trocar injury in, 1028 vascular injury in, 1028 Laparoscopic skills, inanimate models for, 1120

Laparoscopic surgical workstation, 1105 Laparoscopic suturing techniques, 869 Laparoscopic suturing, free hand, 386 Laparoscopic testicular denervation, 7 Laparoscopic tissue dissection, 211 Laparoscopic trocar sites, abdominal wall, 395

Laparoscopic trocars, types of, 69 Laparoscopic tubal disruption, 8 Laparoscopic tubal sterilization, 7 Laparoscopic ultrasound probe, 15, 198

Laparoscopic ultrasound, intraoperative, 249 Laparoscopic vascular instruments, 511 Laparoscopic vascular suturing, 841 Laparoscopy versus open

Burch colposuspension, 403 open pelvic lymph node dissection

(PLND), 619 open procedures, operative time for, 1018 open radical prostatectomy, 696 Laparoscopic visualization, 126 Laparoscopic VVF repair, 414 Laparoscopic wound infections, 1039 Laparoscopy access injuries, 905 advantages, 381, 453 autostaplers, 132 bilateral varix ligation, 960 bladder cuff, 166 bladder injury and, 947 bladder reconstruction, 164 bowel injuries, 959 color Doppler ultrasound, 211 for colorectal cancer, 953 conventional instruments, 719 cryoablation, 544 cryosurgery, 1004 cyst-aspiration needle, 330 cyst decortication, 243 cyst manipulation, 534 decortication, 1005 diagnostic, 773 dismembered pyeloplasty, 321 donor grafts, 361 donor nephrectomy, 9, 15, 893, 901 gasless, 34-35, 823 hand-assisted, 295

Hasson technique, 68 heminephrectomy, 532 hemodynamic response to, 32 and hemostasis, 132-133 human, 6 ileal ureter, 526

ileal vaginal reconstruction, 159

instruments for, 67 intracorporeal needles, for, 150 intracorporeal suturing fluid, 143-144 knot tying, 129, 147, 1070 mathematical modeling in, 1130 mesh fixations, 166 operating room systems, 74 orchidopexy, 767 parenchymal suturing, 526 physiologic complications of, 39 principles, 724 psychomotor skills, 134, 136 radiofrequency ablation (RFA), 554 renal hypothermia, 531 renal vascular surgery, 161, 531 role in malignancy, 467-468 sacrocolpopexy, 894 skill development and assessment, 133 surgical skill, 129, 134 surgical technique of, 120 suturing dye materials for, 150 ergonomics of, 145 essentials of, 132-133 instruments, 129

Laparoscopy (continued)

intracorporeal, 130, 1070 microsurgical, 146 time line, 130 task goals in, 698 telementoring, 173 therapeutic, 731-753 tissue reapproximation and healing, 133 training, 129, 135-139, 698 transperitoneal, 933 urologic reconstructive techniques, 129-130

Veress needle, 67 visualization, 69 VR models for, 1122 Lapdisc® (Ethicon Endosurgical, Ohio), 494, 788

LapMentor® simulator, 1111, 1123 Lapra-Ty® suture clips (Ethicon Endosurgery,

Ohio), 167 LapSac® (Cook Urological Inc., Indiana),

494, 589 Laser tissue welding, 517 Laser partial nephrectomy, 538 soldering, 538 technology, 538 Lateral umbilical ligament (LUL), 19, 20 Left para-aortic dissection, 607 Leinodiaphragmatic ligament, 200 Leiomyomata, 940 Leukocytosis, 986 Lichtleiter of Bozzini, 4 Ligasure™ (Valleylab, Tyco Healthcare,

Connecticut), 69, 771 Lithotripsy, shock wave, 1080 Live donor nephrectomy, 813-814

gasless retroperitoneoscopy-assisted, 815 hand assited, 816

retroperitoneal laparoscopy-assisted, 815 video-assisted minilaparotomy, 816 Liver, intraoperative ultrasound of, 212 Lucent cannulas, 772 LULs. See Lateral umbilical ligament Lumbar vein, 14, 791 Lumbodorsal fascia, 330 Lung cancer metastasis, 466 Lung, ipsilateral, 828 Lymph node dissection, bilateral, 893 Lymph node metastases, 578, 618 Lymph node removal, endoscopic bag for, 606 Lymphadenectomy bilateral pelvic, 627 laparoscopic pelvic, 9 ureterolysis and, 1005 Lymphadenectomy Laparoscopic, for bladder cancer, 671 Lymphatic disconnection Laparoscopic, 450-451 patient selection for, 450 Lymphatic metastatic spread, with testicular cancer, 602 Lymphocele drainage, Laparoscopic, 886 Lymphocele fenestration Laparoscopic, complication of, 288 Lymphocele cavity, 377-378 complications in, 378

etiologic factors of, 375 laparoscopic, 2-4 marsupialization of, 376-377 pathologic analysis of, 377 surgery, 1005 symptomatic, 376, 1005 treatment, 376 visualization of, 378 Lymphocelectomy indications for, 375-376 pelvic, 376 Lymphocelectomy, laparoscopic, 1004 Lymphadenectomy, laparoscopic retroperitoneal, dissection time of, 1065

Lymphocytic stimulation index, 961 Lympholysis, retroperitoneal vs.

transperitoneal, 454 Lysis laparoscopic of adhesions, 941

Magnetic resonance imaging advantages of, 50 imaging quality in, 50 intravenous contrast volume, 52 motion-free, 51 for renal cysts, 261-262 software design, 47 Mainz II pouch, laparoscopic closure and drains in, 662 patient preparation in, 660 postoperative period of, 662 radical cystectomy in, 661 sigmoid pouch creation, 660 ureteral reimplantation in, 661-662 Major histocompatibility complex (MHC), class I molecules, 954 Malignancy adrenal, 465, 467

adrenalectomy for solitary, 465-466 laparoscopic excision of, 469 role of laparoscopy for, 467-468 Malignant ascitic fluid, characteristics of, 977 Mammalian cell types, 1054 Maniceps®, 877 Manitol, 339

intravenous administration of, 513 Mantis® (Mimic Technologies, Seattle,

Washington), 1109 Master-slave robotic devices, 730 Maternal and fetal monitoring, 988 Maya® (Alias Systems Corp, Canada), 1106 Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster syndrome, 159 McBurney's incision, 688 Mechanical tissue tripsy, 1079-1082 Medial umbilical ligament (MULs), 20, 1070 Medicolegal considerations, 1025, 1044-1045 Membrane, peritoneal, 433 Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center

(MSKCC), 731 Mental imagery techniques, 1098 Metabolic acidosis, 33 Metabolic activities, renal, 835 Metastases, visceral organ, 60 Metastasis lung cancer, 466 patients with, 466 port-site, 467

renal cell carcinoma (RCC), 465

Metastatic disease, biologic behavior of, 746 Metzenbaum scissors, 577 Miami Pouch, laparoscopic hand-assisted, 663 Micro-electro-mechanical systems

(MEMS), 1147 MicroDexterity systems, 107 Microprocessor-controlled electrocautery units, 1034 Microvascular bleeding, 974 Microvascular techniques, 10 Micturitional headaches, 217 Mignon lamp, 4 Millin's adenomectomy, 871 Millin's prostatectomy, laparoscopic extraperitoneal, 866 Minilaparoscopy benefits and limitations of, 887 cosmetic advantage of, 887 image resolution with, 887 instruments, 883 pyeloplasty, 887 urologic procedures, 884 Minilaparotomy live donor nephrectomy, video-assisted, 816 Minilaparotomy, 816

Minisite® (U.S. Surgical Corp., Connecticut), 67, 884

Mitrofannoff principle, bladder reconstruction, 165 Monocryl™ (poliglecaprone 25)

sutures, 724 Monocyte-macrophage function, 957 Monofilament polydioxanone, 176 Montsouris technique, 678, 686 bladder dissection, 687 prostate dissection, 686, 688 retzius space in, development of, 687 trocar positioning, 687-688 urethrovesical anastomosis, 688 Montsouris technique, urethrovesical anastomosis in, 871-872 MULs. See Medial umbilical ligament Multiplanar reformations, 49 Muritz 996 Hydro-Jet® generator (Euromed

Medizintechnik, Germany), 1064 Myelolipomas, 187 Myelomeningocele patients, 39 Myoglobin, toxic effects of, 928

Nanofiltration, 101 Nanoparticle designs of, 1141 formation, 1142 gold, 1142, 1143 Nanosensors, 1143 Nanoshells, 1143 Nanotechnology, 1143-1144 limitations of, 1143

in urology, potential applications of, 1141 Nanotweezers, 1143 National Aeronautics and Space

Administration (NASA), 107 National Association of Insurance

Commissioners (NAIC) severity index score, 1041, 1045 National Television Standards Committee (NTSC), 82

Natural killer (NK) cells, 954 Neck surgery, 814

Neck-sparing technique, non-bladder, 684 Necrosis, tubular, 842 Needlescopic lymphocele drainage, 886 Needlescopic dissection, 885 instruments, 884 urologic procedures, 884-885 Neoadjuvant chemotherapy, 580 Neobladder, 1055 anterior plate of, 657 in pelvis, 658 Neobladder creation, 654, 657 Neobladder stenosis, 630 Neoplasm, solid, 260 Nephrectomy, 1139 bilateral, 800 complications, 527 donor, 802-803, 807 laparoscopic, 281, 287, 291 laparoscopic partial, 1132 laparoscopic radical, 483 laparoscopic radical/simple, 1132-1133

comparison of, 1134 partial, 543, 801 radical, 800

reconstruction, partial, 160 robotic, 892 simple, 800 surgical approach, 483 telerobotic laparoscopic, 892 thoracoscopic transdiaphragmatic, 826 transperitoneal laparoscopic, 807 types of, 1018 ureteral complications, 803 Nephrectomy, laparoscopic, 9, 34, 97282, 474, 574, 1132 anesthetic considerations for, 232 Nephrectomy, laparoscopic retroperitoneal radical, 483 complications of, 490 contraindication of, 484 equipments for, 484 hemostasis and closure in, 488-489 indications for, 484 patient positioning in, 484-485 port placement in, 486-487 preoperative preparation in, 484 in urologic armamentarium, 483 Nephrectomy technique, laparoscopic, 1012 for autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), 244 benefits, 241

for benign conditions, 241 complications, 237-238, 241 cost comparison of open and, 1012-1013 evaluation of, 1012 indications, 241 Nephrolithotomy, 331

laparoscopy anatrophic, 161 percutaneous, 326 Nephrolympholysis, 451 Nephron-sparing surgery (NSS), 47, 503, 520, 553

Nephropexy, 256-257, 452 Nephropexy, laparoscopic patient preparation for, 254 patient selection of, 254

postoperative care, 256-257 retroperitoneal approach for kidney fixation in, 256 patient positioning in, 255 port placement in, 256 Nephrolithotomy, laparoscopic, 1006 limitations of, 785 minilaparotomy-assisted, 814 nephroureterectomy, 587

transperitoneal, 592 and open simple nephrectomy, 241-242 operative techniques of, 588 patient selection, 223, 242-243 preoperative preparation, 231-232 technique, 233-236

insufflation and trocar placement, 232-233

mobilization of the upper pole, 235 modifications, 235-236 patient positioning, 232 pedicle control, 234-235 tips, 236-237 ureteric division, 235 transperitoneal approach for, 254, 255 for tuberculosis, of kidney, 243 for xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XGP), 241, 243 Nephrectomy, laparoscopic radical complications of, 496 diagnosis of, 592 hand-assisted, 494 open radical nephrectomy, 495 oncologic outcome of, 495-496, 794 for renal cell cancer, 495-496 retroperitoneal approach for, 494 transperitoneal, 493 Nephroureterectomy, laparoscopic, 747, 748 hand-assisted, 4-5 morbidity of, 565 Nephroureterectomy, laparoscopic radical (LNUX), 573 adjunctive procedures of, 578-579 advantages of, 565 complications of, 577 and distal ureter approach, 575 hand-assisted, 574 histopathologic results of, 578 morbidity of, 577-578 oncologic efficacy of, 578 with open bladder cuff resection, 578 and open radical nephroureterectomy, 578 and port site metastasis, 580 perioperative results of, 574 retroperitoneal approach, advantages of, 574 transperitoneal, 7 for upper tract urothelial carcinoma, 565 Nephroptosis, 162 diagnosis, 254 pathogenesis, 253 symptoms, 253-254 therapeutic options for, 251 Nephrostomy drainage, proximal, 1069 Nephrostomy tube, 991 Nephrotoxic agents, adverse effects of, 40 Nephrotoxicity, 48 Nephroureterectomy, 758, 786 Nerve injury, 459

motor obturator, 1040 Nerve-sparing dissection, 722 Nerve-sparing retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy, 1064 Nerve-sparing robot-assisted radical cystectomy, with urinary diversion, 669 Nerves femoral, 924-925 median, 923-924 obturator, 925 peroneal, 925, 930 ulnar, 923-924 Neisseria gonorrhea, 941 Neuroblastoma, 757, 758 Neurogenic bladder dysfunction, 381-382, 851 management of, 389 pediatric patients with, 662 treatment for, 650 Neuromuscular bundles, preservation of, 1066

Neuromuscular complications, 923

risk factors for, 925 Neuromuscular injuries, 923 operative factors, 927 patient factors for, 925-926 risk factors for, 925-926 Neuromuscular, complications of, 931 Neuropathies, 395 femoral, 930 median, 930 obturator, 930 peroneal, 930 ulnar, 930 Neurosurgery, 1079 Neurovascular bundle (NVBs), 682 dissection, 721-722, 738 pedicle control of, 721-722 posterolateral, 725 preservation of, 709, 721-722 thermal damage to, 688 Neurovascular dissection, interfascial, 25 Neurovascular plexus, prostatic, 25 Neurovascular structures, 721-722 Neutrophils, chemotactic activity of, 965 Newman, David, 4 Nielsen's law, 1105 Nitze-Leiter cystoscope, 4 Nitze max, 4

Non-bladder neck-sparing technique, 684 Non-nerve-sparing technique, 682 Non-nerve-sparing versus nerve-sparing procedures, 687 Non-seminomatous germ cell tumors (NSGCT), clinical stage I and II, 599-601 Nongynecologic laparoscopic procedures, 988 Nonobstetrical abdominal surgery Nonrefluxing anastomoses, in animals, 852 Nonrenal tissue, initial biopsy of, 250 Nonseminomatous germ cell tumors (NSGCT), 611-612

Obesity, 360, 475

Omniport (Intermed, Nevada), 788 Oncologic surgery, principles of, 738, 785 Oophorectomy, complication of, 944 Open and laparoscopic surgery, operative costs, 1010

Open and laparoscopic-assisted radical cystectomy, comparison of, 674 Open bladder technique, 577 Open burch, de novo detrusor instability in, 403 Open laparoscopic access, 1043 Open pelvic lymph node dissection

(OPLND), for prostate cancer, 375 Open radical cystectomy (ORC), 953

with urinary diversion, 669 Open retropubic radical prostatectomy, sutures at, 876 Open surgical renal revascularization, 843 Open suturing procedure, 877 Operating room for laparoscopic and endourology, 86 for robotics surgery, 86 Optical catheters, 883 Optical trocar, advantage of, 905 Optimal hypothermia temperature, 531 Optiview™ (Ethicon, New Jersey) Oral-gastric decompression tube, 386 Orchalgia, 423 Orchidopexy considerations for, 768 laparoscopic, complications of, 773 pelvioscopic, 767

single-stage Fowler—Stephens, 771 two stage Fowler—Stephens, 773-776 Orchiopexy, 885 bilateral, 886 blood loss for, 886 operative time for, 886 Organ bag via periumbilical incision, extraction of, 685 Orthotopic ileal loop, laparoscopic, 670 Orthotopic ileal neobladder, laparoscopic, 670 closure and drains, 658 harvesting small bowel, 657 neobladder creation, 654 postoperative management of, 658 restoring bowel continuity in, 657 ureteroneovesical anastomoses, 657 Orthotopic neobladder intracorporeal, 655 laparoscopic open-assisted, 655 operative time for, 655 Orthotopic W-shaped neobladder Ovarian cancer, 173, 1039

epithelial, 945 Ovarian carcinoma, 751 Ovarian remnant syndrome, risk of,

944-945 Ovarian tumor, 944

Oxycel (Ethicon, Somerville, New Jersey), 97

Partial cystectomy laparoscopic, 1056 Prostate surgery laparoscopic, innovations in, 737

Prostatectomy laparoscopic, 930, 1012 Prostatic adenomectomy laparoscopic, extraperitoneal, 864 Pyelolithotomy laparoscopic, 281 Pyeloplasty laparoscopic, 304, 313 in children, 316 complexity of, 295 contraindications, 296 dissection in, 298 in horseshoe kidney, 845

indications for, 296 intracorporeal suturing of, 297 patient positioning for, 296 postoperative complications of, 300 preoperative preparation in, 296 retroperitoneal approach for, 296 robot-assisted, 4, 890 for secondary ureteropelvic junction (UPJ), obstruction, 4 surgical technique for, 296-298 transperitoneal approach for, 296 Partial nephrectomy, laparoscopic, 9, 97, 327, 328, 511, 503 cleveland clinic technique of, 512 dissection time for, 1064 and hemostasis, 517 indications and contraindications, 511 preoperative preparation, 328-329 retroperitoneal approach, 329 transperitoneal approach, 33 Pelvic lymph node dissection, laparoscopic,

377, 747, 1120 Pelvic lymphadenectomy, laparoscopic, 9, 618 Palomo, retroperitoneal approach, 425 Pancreatic surgery, robotic, 172 Paraganglioma clinical manifestations of, 217 extra-adrenal, classification of, 217 pathologic behaviors, 220 Paravaginal herniation, 405 Parenchyma, renal, 326 Parenchymal bleeding, 331 Parenchymal compression, 536 Parenchymal hemostasis, 527 Parenchymal hemostatic sutures, 513 Parenchymal hydrodissection, 537 Parenchymal suturing, laparoscopic, 526 Parenchymal temperature, renal. See Renal parenchymal temperature Parenchymal thermal coagulation depth, 529 Parenchymal tumor invasion, 532 Parenchymatous tissue, 1079 Parenteral nutrition, 914 Parra's simple cystectomy, 663 Partial nephrectomy, laparoscopic, 97 Partial thromboplastin time (PTT) PDB balloon dilator (U.S. Surgical,

Connecticut), 68 PDSII™, 140

Pediatric cardiorespiratory physiology, pneumoperitoneum on, 762 Pediatric laparoscopic complications, 763 Pediatric oncologic applications, 757 Pediatric technique, 308 Pediatric tumors, 757 Pediatric urologic laparoscopy, 905 evolution of, 758 open access system in, 760 patient preparation in, 758 surgical complications of, 763 Veress access system in, 760 Pelvic adhesions, 941 Pelvic anatomy, 456-457 Pelvic examination simulator, 1116 Pelvic fascia, lateral, 683 Pelvic fractures, 999

Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), 941-943 Pelvic lymph adenectomy bleeding, 682, 708, 1035

Pelvic lymph node dissection, 376, 708,

722-723, 913 Pelvic lymphoceles, 886 Pelvic mass, clinical assessment of, 940 Pelvic mesocolon, 21 Pelvic pain chronic, 941 Pelvic plexus, 22 Pelvic procedures in child, 759 Pelvic radiation therapy, 648 Pelvic reconstructive surgery, 398 Pelvic region, laparoscopic approach to, 679 Pelvic ultrasound, 944 Pelvicaliceal suture repair, impact of, 532 Pelvioscopic orchidopexy, 767 Perceptron learning rule, 1130 PercMentor® (Simbionix), 1105 Percutaneous access of kidney

(PAKY), 108, 1109 Percutaneous nephrolithotripsy

(PCNL), 279 Perineal prostatectomy, 420 Perineal radical prostatectomy, 705 Peripheral nerve injury, 925, 927 Peripheral neuropathies, 929-931 Periprostatic fibrosis, 679 Peritoneal catheters, 434 Peritoneal dialysis (PD) catheter, 434, 441 Peritoneal flap, 413

Peritoneal immunity, importance of, 750 Peritoneal insufflation, 979 Peritoneal irritation, 976 Peritoneal macrophages, 957 Peritoneal planar lifting device, 816 Peritoneal trauma, 750 Peritoneoscopy, 6, 7, 435 Peritoneotomy, inadvertent, 126 potential complications of, 737 prevention of, 490 Peritoneum, 232, 386 Peritonitis, 378 Periureteral adhesions, 1072 Periureteral tissue, 9, 284, 722 Petit's inferior lumbar triangle, 485 Pfannenstiel extraction incision, 342 Pfannenstiel incision, 494 Phagocytosis, 954 Phase-alternation-by-line (PAL), 82 Pheochromocytomas, 209 adrenalectomy for, 225-226 algorithm for, 219 biochemical assays testing for, 217 diagnosis of, 225, 990 imaging study for, 218 management of, 211, 214 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) imaging of, 218 surgical risks of, 210 technique of, 218 treatment of, 225, 825, 990 extra-adrenal, 217 laparoscopic management of, 219, 220 laparoscopic partial cystectomy for, 221 Pheochromocytoma extra-adrenal, 217 Phillips Jordan M., 8 Phrenic veins, 792

Physician Insurers Association of

America (PIAA) claims, in United States, 1028, 1045 Phytohemagglutinin (PHAP), 960-961 Piezoceramic elements, ultrasound shock waves from, 1080 Pixie® microendoscope (Origin MedSystems,

California), 884 Platinum wire loop, 4 Pleurocentesis, 935 Pleurotomy, 934 Plexus, inferior hypogastric, 22 Pneumoinsufflation, blind Veress needle method for, 1043 Pneumopericardium, mechanism of, 934 Pneumoperitoneum, 339, 413, 554, 884 effects of, 468 gastrointestinal, 913 physiologic, 977 and gasless laparoscopic surgery, immune response of, 817 hydration of, aggressive, 354 properties of, antioxidant, 354 injury, complications of, 1035 needle, 439

supraumbilical incision of, 673 tamponade effect of, 729 Pneumoretroperitoneum, 121, 126, 256 Pneumosleeve, 799 Pneumothorax, 524, 935, 998 Polycarbonate membranes, collagen-coated cylindrical, 1057 Polycystic kidney disease (PCKD), 243, 800, 1133

Polyethylene film (3M Health Care,

Minnesota), 589 Polyethylene glycol (PEG) polymers, 101 Polyglactin suture, 12 Polygon models, 1106, 1108 Polymer, C32, 1142 Polymerization, 94

Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), 965 Polyprolene mesh, 459 Polypropylenimine dendrimers, 1142 Polysorb™ (U.S. Surgical, Connecticut), 140, 168

Polyurethane catheters, 434

Porcine model, focal renal ablation in, 698, 1079

Porcine renal cryosurgery, 543

Porcine skin, healing characteristics of, 651

Port closure device (Carter-Thomasson, Inlet

Medical, Minnesota), 547 Port placement, in children, 758, 760 Port site herniation, 1038, 1041 Port site metastases, 1039 Port site recurrence (PSR), 745 growth of, 750 implications on, 749 incidence of, 749 prevention, 751 Port site skin incision, 836 Port-site metastasis, 467 Port-site tumor seeding, 621 Postganglionic retroperitoneal sympathetic nerves, dissection of, 1066 Posthysterectomy vaginal vault prolapse, 894 Postprostatectomy, 1019 Postpyeloplasty procedure, 299-300

right-sided, 298 Pre-peritoneal distention balloon, 486 Precystectomy, bladder capacity of, 1055 Pregnancy anemia in, physiologic, 89 deep venous thrombosis, risk of, 985 magnetic resonance imaging during, 986 open surgical procedures during, 987 Preperitoneal insufflation, 37 Preston, Charles, 4 Primum movens, 19 Progesterone therapy, 992 Prolene hernia mesh, 399 Prophylaxis, thromboembolism, 196 Propofol™, 626

Prostate, transurethral resection of, 108 Prostate apex, dissection of, 683 Prostate biopsy, 108 Prostate cancer, 617, 717, 729 drug delivery for, 1142 metastatic, 1084 risk of, 632-633 screening, 419 treatment, cost of, 1013 Prostate dissection, 920 nerve sparing of, 686 non-nerve sparing, 687 Prostate, posterior dissection of, 686 Prostate-sparing laparoscopic radical cystec-tomy, 673

Prostate specific antigen (PSA), 617, 860, 1019

Prostatectomy, 724 cancer control, 1019 laparoscopy radical, 150, 678 robotic radical, 717, 894 open radical oncological outcome, 693 operating time, 691 Prostatic adenoma, 865 Prostatic adenomectomy, 865 Prostatic apex, 23

neurovascular bundle from, 683 Prostatic fascia, 24-26, 683 Prostatic lymph node drainage, 617 Prostatic neurovascular plexus, 25 Prostatic pedicle, Prostatic pedicles, 24-26, 709 right, 25

Prostatic urothelium, texture maps of, 1118 Prostatorectal fascia, 22, 24 Prostatoseminal vesicular fascia, 25 Prostheses, with micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) sensors, 1148 Protein measurement, urinary, 537 Proteinuria, 247, 250-251 Prothrombin time (PT), 973 Protractor™ (Weck Closure Systems, North

Carolina), 644 Psoas fascia, 330 Psoas muscle, 126, 487 Pubic tubercle, 457 Puboprostatic ligaments, 23, 681 Pubovesical ligaments, 23 PUMA (Programmable Universal Machine for

Assembly) 558 robot, 107 Pyelocaliceal diverticulectomy, 162 Pyelocaliceal repair, 161 Pyelogram, retrograde, 296, 396

Pyelolithotomy, 280 with concomitant pyeloplasty, 283 laparoscopic, 160 robot-assisted, 283, 288 Pyelonephritis, 1076 PPyeloplasty, 98, 282, 304, 845-846 Anderson-Hynes technique, 295 Culp-DeWeerd, 295 Fenger, 295, 299 Foley Y-V plasty, 295, 299 incision, 283 robot-assisted, 283, 305 techniques for, 295 Pyocystis, 803 Pyosalpinx, 943

Pyrotech™ (EDAP, France), 1080 Pyrotherapy, 1080

Quadratus lumborum muscle, 255 Quill and cannula, 440 Quixil (Omrix Biopharmaceuticals S.A., Rhode St Genesé, Belgium), 93

Radiation therapy, 637

for pelvic extravesical disease, 580 Retropubic colposuspension, laparoscopic, 947 Retropubic prostatectomy, laparoscopic, 860 Reanastomosis, laparoscopic, 947 Rectosigmoid pouch creation, laparoscopic, 671 Renal autotransplantation, laparoscopic, 842-843

Renal biopsy, laparoscopic, 247 complications, 250 disadvantage of, 251 epidural anesthesia in, 251 pneumocephalus in, 250 retroperitoneal approaches for, 247, 250 surgical technique of, 247-250 transperitoneal approaches for, 247 Renal donation, laparoscopic, 359 Renal hypothermia, laparoscopic, 517 Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection laparoscopic (rPLND), 9, 98, 611 Radical cystectomy, laparoscopic, 953 blood loss in, 669 complications of, 671 hand-assisted, 674 history of, 670 with ileal neobladder, 671 international registry of, 674 lymphadenectomy, oncological outcomes of, 670 robot-assisted, 673 Radical cystectomy, laparoscopic, 655

steps in, 620 Radical cystectomy (prostate sparing), laparoscopic, 625, 632 Radical cystectomy, 651-652, 656 Radical hysterectomy, 945 Radical nephrectomy (RN), 123, 527, 543 bowel preparation for, 475 complications, 479 contraindications to, 474 evaluation, preoperative, 474-475 intraoperative steps of, 475 laparoscopic, 477, 978 retroperitoneoscopic, 495

Radical nephrectomy (RN) (continued) surgical technique, 475-479 patient positioning, 475-479 port placement schemes, 476 technical steps, 476-479 Radical open nephroureterectomy, 577 Radical prostatecomist, 420, 695 Radical prostatectomy, 692 and rectal injury, 919-920 management of, 919-920 Radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP), 724, 1014

Radio-frequency ablation (RFA), 553, 751, 1004 chronic histopathologic effects of, 558 clinical studies of, 559-561 indication and contraindications for, 554 laparoscopic, 554, 557

partial nephrectomy for, 560 mechanism of action, 554 oncologic adequacy of, 559 percutaneous, 556 temperature-based, 559 Radio frequency electrode, 553 Radio frequency energy, 529 Radiolucent needle driver, 108 Radiosensitive organs, tissue ablation in, 1079

Radiosurgery, 1079 Palmer Raoul, 7 RB-1 needle, 724 Rectosigmoid carcinoma, 965 Rectosigmoid junction, antimesenteric incision at, 661 Rectosigmoid pouch, 659-660 Rectourethral fistula, 919 Rectourethralis muscle, 25, 688, 709 Rectus fascia, anterior, 706 Rectus muscle, 433, 457 Remote center of motion (RCM), 108 Remote telepresence surgery, 1095 Remote telesurgery, 1094 Renal ablative techniques, 1004-1005 Renal artery aneurysm, laparoscopic repair of, 843 clamping, 523 pulsations, 14, 125 stenosis, 162 Renal autotransplantation, 852

laparoscopic, 842-843 Renal biopsy direct-vision, 247 laparoscopic, 247 transurethral, 251 Renal blood vessels, 14 Renal capsule, anterior aspect of, 792 Renal cell carcinoma (RCC), 466, 519-520, 1003 biology of, 962

for high intensity-focused ultrasound

(HIFU), 1004 pathology, 524 Renal cyst, 360-361 coagulation, 268-269

computed tomography criteria for, 260, 261 cystoscopy and ureteral stent placement of,

265-266 diagnosis of, radiologic, 260 drain placement, 269 exophytic, 267

fluid, 267-268

histopathologic and cytologic analysis of, 16 indications and contraindications of,

262-263 laparoscopic, 259 lesions, 264

management of, complex, 14 peripelvic, 15, 262, 263 recurrence rate, 259 solitary, 17

surgical management of, 273 symptoms of, 262 ultrasonography of, 260 Renal cysts ablation, 273 instrumentation and equipment for, 265 laparoscopic, 262 patient positioning, 264-265 retroperitoneal approach, 14, 265 transperitoneal approach, 266 Renal cyst base, biopsy and coagulation of,

268-269 Renal cyst drainage blood loss for, 887 marsupialization of, 886 operative time for, 887 Renal cyst fluid, needle aspiration of, 267 Renal cyst surgery, 1005 Renal cyst wall, excision of, 268 Renal failure, 250-251 Renal hilar vascular stumps, 792 Renal hilum, 16, 126, 344-345 bleeding from, 490 complications, 490 control of, 478 dissection of, 487, 791 ligation of, 487 Renal hypothermia ice slush, 836-837 laparoscopic, 531 physiology of, 835-836 techniques of laparoscopic, 836 transarterial, 838-839 Renal ischemia time, 530 Renal lesions, characterization of, 52 Renal malignancy, 1131 Renal metabolic activities, 835 Renal mobilization, 490 Renal parenchyma, 255, 326,590, 1068 circumferential compression of, 517 hemostasis, 511 incision, 537 temperature, 837 Renal pelvis dissection, 282 Renal procedure in child, surgical setup, 759 Renal reconstruction, 159-163 Renal

100 Pregnancy Tips

100 Pregnancy Tips

Prior to planning pregnancy, you should learn more about the things involved in getting pregnant. It involves carrying a baby inside you for nine months, caring for a child for a number of years, and many more. Consider these things, so that you can properly assess if you are ready for pregnancy. Get all these very important tips about pregnancy that you need to know.

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