Exposure remains one of the keys to success in both open and laparoscopic surgery.

In open surgery, the incision and retraction dictates the quality of exposure. In laparoscopy, high-quality optics are absolutely essential to provide the necessary exposure for a successful surgical intervention. Imaging, with particular emphasis on newer digital cameras and monitor technology, will be discussed in this chapter.

Other key features of the operating room of the future include documentation, education, and training. The ability to readily capture both video and still images is essential to all of these goals. The current technology allows the surgeon to capture entire procedures or just still images in either digital or analog form. However, management and manipulation of the data can be quite cumbersome and complex. Future developments will certainly be instrumental in allowing for more user-friendly interfaces.

Most current operating rooms were designed targeting the open surgery needs. As minimally invasive endoscopic procedures have gained favor, adjustments were made to accommodate laparoscopic and minimally invasive technology. More recent operating room designs address the fundamental differences between open and laparo-scopic surgery. As a result, specialized rooms are being developed and are much more conducive to consistent and trouble-free laparoscopy and endourology.

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