Surgery is an effective form of treatment for most localized solid tumors of the genitourinary system. However, lymph node metastases are a significant prognostic factor in urologic malignancy and lymphadenectomy is therapeutic in certain instances. With the advent of laparoscopy, pelvic lymphadenectomy became a popular and frequently performed procedure for staging prostate cancer in the 1990s. Laparoscopy has continued to gain momentum in the management of urologic tumors and laparoscopic radical cystectomy with complete intracorporeal urinary diversion has become a reality. The role of pelvic lymphadenectomy in the management of prostate cancer, as well as bladder cancer, continues to be defined.

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