Isaac Yi Kim and Ralph V Clayman

Department of Urology, University of California, Orange, California, U.S.A.

INTRODUCTION

ONCOLOGIC OUTCOME

SURGICAL APPROACHES

COMPLICATIONS

Transperitoneal Laparoscopic

FUTURES

Radical Nephrectomy

SUMMARY

Hand-Assisted Laparoscopic Radical

REFERENCES

Nephrectomy

COMMENTARY: R. C. Flanigan

Retroperitoneoscopic Radical

Nephrectomy

INTRAOPERATIVE AND PERIOPERATIVE RESULTS

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