Stuart Wolf Jr

Division of Minimally Invasive Urology, Department of Urology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, U.S.A.

INTRODUCTION PHYSIOLOGIC FACTORS Positioning

Increased Intra-abdominal Pressure

Carbon Dioxide

PHYSIOLOGIC RESPONSES

Cardiovascular

Pulmonary

Renal and Hormonal

Responses to Alternative Techniques

PHYSIOLOGIC COMPLICATIONS

Cardiovascular Collapse

Other Physiologic Complications

SUMMARY

REFERENCES

In a survey of outcomes of laparoscopic cholecystectomy, one-half of the mortality was due to physiologic rather than surgical events. A prepared surgeon can avoid these complications, or at least manage them appropriately if they do occur.

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