Laparoscopic Ureteral Surgery Noncalculous Applications

Department of Urology, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, U.S.A.

■ INTRODUCTION ■ CUTANEOUS URETEROSTOMY

■ RETROCAVAL URETER ■ URETERONEOCYSTOSTOMY

■ IDIOPATHIC RETROPERITONEAL FIBROSIS ■ SUMMARY

■ TRANSURETEROURETEROSTOMY ■ REFERENCES

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