Massimiliano Spaliviero and Anoop M Meraney

Section of Laparoscopic and Robotic Surgery, Glickman Urological Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.A.

■ INTRODUCTION

■ CURRENT INDICATIONS AND CONTRAINDICATIONS OF LAPAROSCOPIC ADRENALECTOMY

■ TRANSTHORACIC LAPAROSCOPY: EXPERIMENTAL AND CLINICAL DATA Experimental Data

Clinical Data

■ THORACOSCOPIC TRANSDIAPHRAGMATIC ADRENALECTOMY: PATIENT SELECTION

■ SURGICAL TECHNIQUE

Patient Preparation and Positioning Step 1: Laparoscopic Entry

Step 2: Placement of Secondary Ports Step 3: Intraoperative Ultrasound Step 4: Incision of the Diaphragm Step 5: Access to Retroperitoneum Step 6: Adrenalectomy Step 7: Closure of the Diaphragmatic

Incision Step 8: Laparoscopic Exit RESULTS

TECHNICAL CAVEATS TECHNICAL LIMITATIONS SUMMARY REFERENCES

Laparoscopic adrenalectomy has achieved established status and is increasingly performed at many institutions worldwide in the majority of patients with benign surgical adrenal disease.

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