Nasser Albqami and Gnter Janetschek

Department of Urology, KH der Elisabethinen, Teaching Hospital of University of Innsbruck, Linz, Austria

■ INTRODUCTION

■ THERAPEUTIC CONCEPTS AND PATIENT SELECTION

Nonseminomatous Germ Cell Tumors Clinical Stage I

Nonseminomatous Germ Cell Tumors Clinical Stage II

■ CONTRAINDICATIONS FOR LAPAROSCOPIC RETROPERITIONEAL LYMPH NODE DISSECTION

■ PREOPERATIVE PREPARATION

■ TEMPLATES Right Template Left Template

■ PATIENT POSITIONING

■ TROCAR PLACEMENT AND PNEUMOPERITONEUM

Transperitoneal Laparoscopic Retroperitoneal Lymph Nodes Dissection

■ EXTRAPERITONEAL APPROACH General Technique and Patient Position Extraperitoneal Space Preparation Trocar Placement

The Template Dissection

■ TECHNICAL CAVEATS

■ REFERENCES

Because open retroperitoneal Iymph node dissection failed to cure all patients with metastatic nonsemino-matous germ cell tumors, all our clinical stage I patients diagnosed as pathologic stage II received chemotherapy as the definitive treatment.

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