Patient Positioning

The patient is placed in the 90° flank position or in the 45° modified flank position depending on whether the retroperitoneal or the transperitoneal approach is employed, respectively. Pneumatic compressors are applied over both legs and the patient is taped to the operative table after carefully padding all bony prominences. The operative table is mildly flexed mainly during the retroperitoneal approach to increase the distance between the costal margin and the iliac crest (Fig. 1).

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