Physiologic Factors

The primary factors influencing the physiologic response to laparoscopy are

■ ■ The increased intra-abdominal pressure from intraperitoneal insufflation of gas and ■ The absorption of CO2, which is used as the insufflant gas in most procedures.

Patient positioning, such as extreme Trendelenburg (head down) or extreme lateral flexion, can play a significant role. These factors can have both stimulatory and inhibitory effects, and their influence can be varied independently to some extent.

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