Port Placement

A 10 mm trocar is placed as the primary port, and CO2 pneumoretroperitoneum is created to 15 mmHg. A 30° laparoscope is inserted, and the psoas identified as the primary landmark. An anterior 5 mm port is placed in the anterior axillary line 3 cm cepha-lad to the iliac crest. A posterior 5 mm port is positioned at the junction of the lateral surface of the erector spinae with the inferior surface of the 12th rib. A fourth 2 mm port may also be required at the level of the primary port in the anterior axillary line for retraction of the kidney and the adrenal gland.

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