Preoperative and Intraoperative Imaging

Preoperative computed tomography with volume-rendered three-dimensional video reconstruction is performed to aid in surgical planning. Intraoperative flexible contact renal ultrasonography is performed to precisely determine tumor size, depth of intra-parenchymal extension, distance from the collecting system, proximity to major renal vessels, and further evaluation of any suspicious satellite renal lessions. The renal capsule is incised circumferentially including a small margin of normal renal parenchyma surrounding the tumor under sonographic guidance (Fig. 2) (4).

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