A clear liquid diet the day before surgery and a light mechanical bowel preparation (such as oral magnesium citrate) are advisable to avoid bowel distention, which can increase the difficulty of the laparoscopic procedure as well as increase the chances of laparoscopic bowel injury.

The supine or low lithotomy positions both can be used. Intraoperative sterile access to the genitalia is preferred to allow filling of the bladder or exchange of catheters as needed.

The Trendelenburg position is essential to displace the bowel out of the pelvis, and a contralateral lateral tilt to improve access to the surgical side of the pelvis helps as well.

The patient should be adequately padded and secured to allow positioning in this manner for the duration of the procedure without neuromuscular injury. Although the procedure can be performed through an extraperitoneal or transperitoneal approach

■ LAPAROSCOPIC BOARI FLAP URETERONEOCYSTOSTOMY Introduction and Indications Contraindications Preparation Technique

Laparoscopic Experience

■ LAPAROSCOPIC ILEAL URETER REPLACEMENT Introduction and Indications Contraindications Preparation Technique


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