Prostatic Invasion

Prostatic invasion occurs by carcinoma-in-situ, ductal invasion or stromal invasion (secondary to ductal invasion or primary by direct extravesical tumoral extension). Cookson et al. (32) reported a 15.6% incidence of prostatic invasion by bladder cancer, with an increased risk when carcinomainsitu or multifocality exists (>30%) and decreased risk in absence of carcinomainsitu and multifocality (4.5%). A 5-10 mm safety margin beyond the bladder neck is ensured with our technique. Moreover, frozen section was performed of the prostatic capsule in patients with higher risk tumors, which were close to the trigone.

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