1. New York State Department of Health Memorandum H-18, June 12, 1992.

2. Kahan SE, Goldman HB, Marengo S, Resnick MI. Urological medical malpractice. J Urol 2001; 165:1638-1642.

3. Koontz WW, Russel JB. Thought on the prevention of urologic liability claims. Trans Am Assoc Genitourin Surg 1977; 68:33.

4. Corcaran M. What is negligence? BJU Int 2000; 86:280-285.

5. Garmisa SP. Informed consent. Chicago Daily Law Bulletin, May 14, 2004.

6. Tammelleo AD. Are hospitals required to obtain patients' consent to surgery? 41 Hospital Law's Regan Report, June 1, 2000.

7. Hendy v Milton Keynes Health Authority (No 2). QBD Med LR 1992; 3(1):119.

8. Hooper v Young. Court of Appeal (1998) Lloyd's Rep. Med, 61.

9. Hatlie MJ. Climbing the learning curve. New technologies, emerging obligations. JAMA 1993; 270:1364-1365.

10. Reingold PD. The admissibility of evidence in malpractice cases: the performance records of practitioners. Brooklyn Law Rev 1992; 58:75-80.

11. Mackauf SH. Identifying medical malpractice cases: attorneys find recurring themes in the types of claims they handle. New York Law J 2001.

12. Provider-specific quality of care data: a proposal for mandatory disclosure. Brooklyn Law Rev 1992; 58:85.

13. Jones B. Legal aspects of consent. BJU Int 2000; 86:275-279.

14. Walter P. The doctrine of informed consent: to inform or not to inform. 71 St. John's Law Rev 1997; 543:454.

15. Hickey JD, Cowan J. Risk management and medicolegal issues in urology. BJU Int 2000; 86:271-274.

16. McManus PL, Wheatley KE. Consent and complication: risk disclosure varies widely between individual surgeons. Ann R Coll Surg Engl 2003; 85:79-82.

17. Australian Law Reform Commission. Informed Decisions About Medical Procedures. Canberra: ALRC, 1989.

18. Wijtenburg E, Navez B, Combier E, Guiot P. Patient's opinion about written information before laparoscopy: a consecutive series of 100 cases. Acta Chir Belg 2002; 102:17-19.

19. Kern KA. Medicolegal perspectives on laparoscopic bile duct injuries. Surg Clin North Am 1994; 74:979-984.

20. Altman LK. Surgical injuries lead to new rule. New York Times, June 19, 1992:1.

21. Ferriman A. Laparoscopic surgery: two thirds of injuries initially missed. BMJ 2000; 321:784.

22. Adelman SH, McBryde AM. Can using emergent technology incur liability? Bull Am Coll Surg 1998; 83:18-24.

23. Chandler JG, Voyles CR, Floore TL, Bartholomew LA. Litigious consequences of open and laparoscopic surgical mishaps. J Gastrointest Surg 1997; 1:138-145.

24. Avery JK. Price of the learning curve? J Tenn Med Assoc; 1994; 87:338-339.

25. Hashizume M, Sugimachi K. Needle and trocar injury during laparoscopic surgery in Japan. Surg Endosc 1997; 11:1198-1201.

26. Gawande A. Complications. A Surgeon's Notes on an Imperfect Science. New York: Picador, 2002.

27. MacCordick C, Lecuru F, Rizk E, Robin F, Boucaya V, Taurelle R. Morbidity in laparoscopic gynecologic surgery. Surg Endosc 1999; 13:57-61.

28. Leibl BJ, Schmedt C-G, Schwarz J, Kraft K, Bittner R. Laparoscopic surgery complications associated with trocar tip design: review of the literature and own results. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Techn 1999; 9:135-140.

29. Capelouto CC, Kavoussi LR. Complications of laparoscopic surgery. Urology 1993; 42:2-12.

30. Adamek HE, Maier M, Benz C, Huber, Schilling D, Rieman JF. Severe complications in diagnostic laparoscopy. 9 years experience in 747 examinations. Med Klin 1996; 91:694-697.

31. Andrei B. Myomectomy by pelvioscopy. Int Surg 1996; 81:271-275.

32. Karki-Sirren P, Kurki T. Anationwide analysis of laparoscopic complications. Obstet Gynecol 1997; 89:108-112.

33. Hulka J, Peterson HB, Phillips JM, Surrey MW. Operative laparoscopy: American Association of Gynecologic Laparoscopists' 1993 membership survey. J Am Assoc Gynecol Laparosc 1995; 2:133-136.

34. Ortiz J, Buquet R, Singla J, Rivero L. Complications in laparoscopy. J Am Assoc Gynecol Laparosc 1995; 2:S38.

35. Peterson H, Hulka J, Phillips J. American Association of Gynecologic Laparoscopitsts' 1988 membership survey on operative laparoscopy. J Reprod Med 1990; 35:587-589.

36. Querleu D, Chapron C. Complications of gynecologic laparoscopic surgery. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol 1995; 7:257-261.

37. Riedel H, Camara O, Schulze G, Brosche T, Blaut T. Pelviscopic survey in Eastern Germany. J Am Assoc Gynecol Laparosc 1996; 3:S42.

38. Saidi MH, Vancaillie TG, White AJ, Sadler RK, Akright BD, Farhart SA. Complications of advanced operative laparoscopy: a review of 452 cases. J Am Assoc Gynecol Laparosc 1994; 1:S31.

39. Phillips JM. Complications in laparoscopy. Int J Gynecol Obstet 1977; 15:157-162.

40. Shantha TR, Harden J. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy: anesthesia-related complications and guidelines. Surg Laparosc Endosc 1991; 3:173-178.

41. Kane MJ, Krejs GJ. Complications of laparoscopy in Dallas: a 7 year prospective study. Gastrointest Endosc 1984; 30:237-240.

42. The Southern Surgeons Club. A prospective analysis of 1518 laparoscopic cholecystectomies. N Engl J Med 1991; 324:1073-1078.

43. Wolfe BM, Gardiner BN, Leary BF, Frey CF. Endoscopic cholecystectomy: an analysis of complications. Arch Surg 1991; 126:1192-1198.

44. Ball TJ. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy: complications call for caution. Pract Gastroenterol 1991; 15:31-45.

45. Philips PA, Amaral JF. Abdominal access complications in laparoscopic surgery. J Am Coll Surg 2001; 192:525-536.

46. Moran ME. The management of laparoscopic injuries of the bowel or blood vessels. Min Invasive Ther 2:289-291.

47. Chandler JG, Corson SL, Way LW. Three spectra of laparoscopic entry access injuries. J Am Coll Surg 2001; 192:478-491.

48. Hanney RM, Carmalt HL, Merrett N, Tait N. Use of Hasson cannula producing major vascular injury at laparoscopy. Surg Endosc 1999; 13:1238-1240.

49. Parsons JK, Varkarakis I, Rha KH, Jarrett TW, Pinto PA, Kavoussi LR. Complications of abdominal urologic laparoscopy: longitudinal five-year analysis. Urology 2004; 63:27-32.

50. Birns ME. Inadvertent instrumental perforation of the colon during laparoscopy: non-surgical repair. Gastrointest Endosc 1989; 35:54.

51. Virardell F, Seres I, Marti VA. Complications of peritoneoscopy: a survey of 1,455 examinations. Gastrointest Endosc 1968; 14:178.

52. Sadeghi-Nejad H, Kavoussi LR, Peters CA. Bowel injury in open technique laparoscopic cannula placement. Urology 1994; 43:559-560.

53. Wu M-P, Ou C-S, Chen S-L, Yen YET, Rowbotham R. Complications and recommended practices for electrosurgery in laparoscopy. Am J Surg 2000; 179:67-73.

54. State of New York Department of Health. Health Department issues advisory on laparoscopic surgery. DOH News 1992; June 14:1-14.

55. The risks of laparoscopic electrosurgery. Health Dev 1995; 24:4-5.

56. Monopolar electrosurgical safety during laparoscopy. Health Dev 1995; 24:6-27.

57. Voyles CR, Tucker RD. Education and engineering solutions for potential problems with laparoscopic monopolar electrosurgery. Am J Surg 1992; 164:57-62.

58. Remorgida V, Anserini P, Prigione S, Magnasco A, Fulcheri E. The behaviour of plastic-insulated instruments in electrosurgery: an overview. Min Invas Ther Allied Technol 1999; 8:77-81.

59. Kennedy JS, Buysse SP, Lawes KR, Ryan TP. Recent innovations in bipolar electrosurgery. Min Invas Ther Allied Technol 1999; 8:95-99.

60. Eggleston JL, Kennedy JS, Platt RC, Taylor KD. 'Instant Response™' electrosurgery generator for laparoscopy and endoscopy. Min Invas Ther Allied Technol 1997; 5(6):491-495.

61. Haag R, Cuschieri A. Recent advances in high-frequency electrosurgery: development of automated systems. J R Coll Surg Edinb 1993; 38:354-364.

62. Amaral JF, Chrostek CA. Experimental comparison of the ultrasonically-activated scalpel to elec-trosurgery and laser surgery for laparoscopic use. Min Invas Ther Allied Technol 1997; 6:324-331.

63. Kanehira E, Kinoshita T, Omura K. Ultrasonically-activated devices for endoscopic surgery. Min Invas Ther Allied Technol 1999; 8:89-94.

64. Kinoshita T, Kanehira E, Omura K, Kawakami K, Watanabe Y. Experimental study on heat production by a 23.5 kHz ultrasonically activated device for endoscopic surgery. Surg Endosc 1999; 13:621-625.

65. Dixon M, Carillo EH. Iliac vascular injuries during elective laparoscopic surgery. Surg Endosc 1999; 13:1230-1233.

66. Baadsgaard SE, Bille S, Egeblad K. Major vascular injury during gynecologic laparoscopy. Report of a case and review of published cases. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 1989; 68:283.

67. Lazasides MK, Arvanitis DP, Liatas AC, Doyantas JN. Iatrogenic and non-iatrogenic arterial trauma: a comparative study. Eur J Surg 1991; 157:17.

68. Oza KN, O'Donnell N, Fisher JB. Aortic laceration: a rare complication of laparoscopy. J Laparoendosc Surg 1992; 2:235-237.

69. McAllister M, Bhayani SB, Ong A, et al. Vena caval transection during retroperitoneoscopic nephrectomy: report of the complication and review of the literature. J Urol 2004; 172:183-185.

70. Regier H. Litigation in laparoscopy. Gen Surg News 1998; 8:1-8.

71. Special report on laparoscopy litigation group. Laparoendosc Surg Update 1995; 3:121-123.

72. Fishman J, Moran ME, Carey R. Obturator neuropathy after laparoscopic lymphadenectomy. Urology 1993; 42:198-200.

73. Low RK, Moran ME, Goodnight JE. Laparoscopic hemostasis: microfibrillar collagen hemostat during directed biopsy. J Laparoendosc Surg 1993; 3:415-420.

74. Green LS, Louglin KR, Kavoussi L. Management of epigastric vessel injury during laparoscopy. J Endourol 1992; 6:95.

75. Hinsl K, Neal P. Management of epigastric vessel injury during laparoscopic nephrectomy. Western Section AUA: Precis, 1992:310.

76. Thompson EH, Wheeless CR. Gastrointestinal complications of laparoscopy sterilization. Obstet Gynecol 1973; 41:669.

77. Lecuru F, Leonard F, Jais JP, Rizk E, Robin F, Taurelle R. Laparoscopy in patients with prior surgery: results of blind approach. JSLS 2001; 5:13-16.

78. Yuzre AA. Pneumoperitoneum needle and trocar injuries in laparoscopy. A survey on possible contributing factors and prevention. J Reprod Med 1990; 35:485.

79. Christie JP, Marrazzo J. Miniperforation of the colon not all postpolypectomy perforations require laparotomy. Dis Colon Rectum 1991; 34:132.

80. Livingston DH, Bartholomew BJ, Blackwood J, Machiedo GW, Rush BJ. The role of laparoscopy in abdominal trauma. J Trauma 1992; 33:471.

81. Schapira M, Dizerens H, Essinger A, Wauters JP, Loup P, von Niederhausern W. Urinary ascites after gynecologic laparoscopy. Lancet 1978; i:871-872.

82. Stengel JN, Felderman ES, Zamora D. Ureteral injury: complication of laparoscopic sterilization. Urology 1974; 4:341-342.

83. Nezhat C, Nezhat F. Laparoscopic repair of ureter resected during operative laparoscopy. Obstet Gynecol 1992; 80:543-544.

84. Gomel V, James C. Intraoperative management of ureteral injury during operative laparoscopy. Fert Steril 1991; 55:416-419.

85. Grainger DA, Soderstrom RM, Schiff SF, Glickman MG, DeCherney AH, Diamond MP. Ureteral injuries at laparoscopy: insights into diagnosis, management, and prevention. Obstet Gynecol 1990; 75:839-843.

86. Fahlenkamp D, Voge W, Andrehs G. Laparoscopic bladder repair after intraperitoneal bladder rupture. Min Invas Ther Allied Technol 1998; 5:467-469.

87. Hsu YS, Chiu AW, Chen KK, Chang LS. Inadvertent puncture of the kidney by a trocar during retroperitoneoscopic ureterolithotomy. Min Invas Ther Allied Technol 1998; 3:281-283.

88. Shuford MD, McDougall EM, Chang SS, LaFleur BJ, Smith JA Jr., Cookson MS. Complications of contemporary radical nephrectomy: comparison of open vs. laparoscopic approach. Urol Oncol 2004; 22:121-126.

89. Steiner H, Peschel R, Janetschek G, et al. Long-term results of laparoscopic retroperitoneal dissection: a single-center 10-year experience. Urology 2004; 63:550-555.

90. Abreu SC, Sharp DS, Ramani AP, et al. Thoracic complications during urologic surgery. J Urol 2004; 171:1451-1455.

91. Doumas K, Alivizatos G. Complications of laparoscopic urologic surgery. Arch Esp Urol 2002; 55:730-736.

92. Soulie M, Salomon L, Seguin P, et al. Multi-institutional study of complications in 1085 laparoscopic urologic procedures. Urology 2001; 58:899-903.

93. Soulie M, Seguin P, Richeux L, et al. Urologic complications of laparoscopic surgery: experience with 350 procedures at a single institution. J Urol 2001; 165(6 Pt 1):1960-1963.

94. Kumar M, Kumar R, Hemal AD, Gupta NP. Complications of retroperitoneoscopic surgery at one centre. BJU 2001; 87:607-612.

95. Keating J, Hill A, Schroeder D, Whittle D. Laparoscopy in the diagnosis and treatment of acute small bowel obstruction. J Laparoendosc Surg 1992; 2:239-244.

96. Ballem RV, Kenny R, Giuliano M. Small bowel obstruction following laser laparoscopic cholcecys-tectomy: a case study. J Laparoendosc Surg 1993; 3:313-314.

97. Stelzner F. The abdominal wall and the development of and treatment of hernias. Langenbecks Arch Chir 1994; 379:109-119.

98. Plaus WJ. Laparoscopic trocar site hernias. Laparoendosc Surg 1993; 3:57-70.

99. Spier LN, Lazzaro RS, Procaccino A, Geiss A. Entrapment of small bowel after laparoscopic herniorrhaphy. Surg Endosc 1993; 7:535-536.

100. Bergemann JL, Hibbert ML, Harkins G, Narvaez J, Asatom A. Omental herniation through a 3-mm umbilical trocar site: unmasking a hidden umbilical hernia. J Laparoendosc Adv Tech 2001; 11:171-173.

101. Harold KL, Goldstein SL, Nelms CD, et al. Optimal closure method of five-millimeter trocar sites. Am J Surg 2004; 187:24-27.

102. Sanz-Lopez S, Martinez-Ramos C, Nunez-Pena JR, deGopegui MR, Pastor-Sirera L, Tamames-Escobar S. Incisional hernias after laparoscopic vs open cholecystectomy. Surg Endosc 1999; 13:922-924.

103. Bowrey DJ, Blom D, Crookes PF, et al. Risk factors and the prevalence of trocar site herniation after laparoscopic fundoplication. Surg Endosc 2001; 15:663-666.

104. Elashry OM, Nakada SY, Wolf JS Jr., Figenshau RS, McDougall EM, Clayman RV. Comparative clinical study of port-closure techniques following laparoscopic surgery. J Am Coll Surg 1996; 183:335-344.

105. Meynaud-Kraemer L, Colin C, Vergnon P, Barth X. Wound infection in open versus laparoscopic appendectomy. A meta-analysis. Int J Technol Assess Health Care 1999; 15:380-391.

106. Koch A, Schreiber LD, Mokros W, Rupprecht H, Lippert H. Quality assurance in appendicitis— what has changed? Analysis of 2 prospective multicenter quality assurance studies. Znetralbl Chir 2000; 125(suppl 2):185-191.

107. Balague Ponz C, Trias M. Laparoscopic surgery and surgical infection. J Chemother 2001; 13:17-22.

108. Winslow ER, Fleshman JW, Birnbaum EH, Brunt LM. Wound complications of laparoscopic vs. open colectomy. Surg Endosc 2002; 16:1420-1425.

109. Podnos YD, Jimenez JC, Wilson SE, Stevens CM, Nguyen NT. Complications after laparoscopic gastric bypass: a review of 3464 cases. Arch Surg 2003; 138:957-961.

110. Winslow ER, Brunt LM. Perioperative outcomes of laparoscopic versus open splenectomy: a metaanalysis with an emphasis on complications. Surgery 2003; 134:647-653.

111. Al-Ghnaniem R, Benjamin IS, Patel AG. Meta-analysis suggests antibiotic prophylaxis is not warranted in low-risk patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Br J Surg 2003; 90:365-366.

112. Anderson AD, McNaught CE, Jain PK, MacFie J. Randomised trial of symbiotic therapy in elective surgical patients. Gut 2004; 53:241-245.

113. Koch A, Zippel R, Marusch F, Schmidt U, Gastinger I, Lippert H. Prospective multicenter study of prophylaxis in operative treatment of appendicitis. Dig Surg 2000; 17:370-378.

114. Poulin EC, Schlachta CM, Seshadri PA, Cadeddu MO, Gregoire R, Mamazza J. Septic complications of elective laparoscopic colorectal resection. Surg Endosc 2001; 15:203-208.

115. Curet MJ. Port site metastases. Am J Surg 2004; 187:705-712.

116. Dobronte Z, Wittmann T, Karascony G. Rapid development of malignant metastases in the abdominal wall after laparoscopy. Endoscopy 1978; 10:127-130.

117. Zmora O, Gervaz P, Wexner SD. Trocar site recurrence in laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer: myth or real concern? Surg Endosc 2001; 15:788-793.

118. Tsivian A, Sidi AA. Port site metastases in urologic laparoscopic surgery. J Urol 2003; 169:1213-1218.

119. Wu JS, Jones DB, Guo LW, et al. Effects of pneumoperitoneum on tumor implantation with decreasing tumor inoculum. Dis Colon Rectum 1998; 41:141-146.

120. Lee SW, Gleason NR, Bessler M, Whelan RL. Peritoneal irrigation with povidone-iodine solution after laparoscopic-assisted splenectomy significantly decreases port-tumor recurrence in a murine model. Dis Colon Rectum 1999; 42:319-326.

121. Ott DE. Laparoscopic hypothermia. J Laparoendosc Surg 1991; 1:127-131.

122. Buckman FR, Sargent L, Gervin AS. A unifying pathologic mechanism in the etiology of intraperit-noeal adhesions. J Surg Res 1976; 20:1-5.

123. Menzies D. Postoperative adhesions: their treatment and relevance in clinical practice. Ann R Coll Surg Engl 1993; 75:147-153.

124. LeGrand EK, Rodgers KE, Girgis W, et al. Efficacy of tolmentin solution for adhesion prevention in rabbit and rat models. J Surg Res 1994; 56:67-71.

125. Pellegrino MJ, Johnson EW. Bilateral obturator nerve injuries during urologic surgery. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1987; 69:46-47.

126. Kandioler-Eckersberger D, Niederle B, Herbst F, Wenzl E. A magnetic probe to retrieve broken metallic parts of instruments during laparoscopic procedures. Surg Endosc 2002; 16:208-209.

127. Gaur DD, Rathi SS, Ravandale AV, Gopichand M. A single-centre experience of retroperito-neoscopy using the balloon technique. BJU Int 2001; 87:602-606.

128. Adams JB II, Micali S, Moore R, Babayan RK, Kavoussi LR. Complications of extraperitoneal balloon dilation. J Endourol 1996; 10:375-378.

129. Moore RG, Demaree RD, Sanda MG, Kavoussi LR. Retroperitoneoscopy: effects of insufflation media on surrounding tissue during balloon rupture. J Endourol 1995; 9:67-71.

130. Yao CC, Wong HH, Chen CC, Wang CC, Yang CC, Lin CS. Migration of endoclip into duodenum: a rare complication after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Surg Endosc 2001; 15:217.

131. Nottingham JM. Mechanical small bowel obstruction from a loose linear cutter staple after laparoscopic appendectomy. Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech 2002; 12:289-290.

132. Hahnfeld LE, Nakada SY, Moon TD. Identification of microtack in the bladder after laparoscopic pelvic surgery. Urology 1999; 54:162.

133. Rubsamen DS. Professional liability newsletter. 1993; 23:1-4.

134. Kern KA. Malpractice litigation involving laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Cost, cause, and consequences. Arch Surg 1997; 132:392-398.

135. McDougall EM. Prevention and treatment of complications of laparoscopic surgery. Highlights. Post Grad Course Urol 1992:10-12.

136. Keehner MM, Tendick F, Meng MV, et al. Spatial ability, experience, and skill in laparoscopic surgery. Am J Surg 2004; 188:71-75.

137. Sir Cushieri A. Minimal access surgery and the future of interventional laparoscopy. Am J Surg 1991; 161:404-407.

138. Kavic MS. The US medical liability system—a system in crisis. JSLS 2004; 8:1-2.

139. Das S. Urologic laparoscopy: the future is now. Urol Clin North Am 2001; 28:1-3.

140. US Department of Health and Human Services. Confronting the new health care crisis: improving health care quality and lowering cost by fixing our medical liability system. daltcp/home.html.

141. Burns CR. Legacies in law and medicine. Canton, Massachusetts: Watson Publishing International, 1977:1-17.

142. Donovan JF. Legal issues in laparoscopy. Contemp Urol 1992:74-81.

143. Faden RR, Beauchamp TL. A history and theory of informed consent. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986:123-129.

144. The Southern Surgeons Club. A prospective analysis of 1,518 laparoscopic cholecystectomies performed by Southern U.S. surgeons. N Engl J Med 1991; 324:1073-1078.

145. Kavoussi LR, Sosa E, Chandhoke P, et al. Complications of laparoscopic pelvic lymph node dissection. J Urol 1993; 149:322.

146. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Update on the medical litigation crisis: not the result of the "insurance cycle."

147. Perone N. Conventional versus open laparoscopy. Am Fam Physician 1983; 27:147-149.

148. New York Public Health §2805-d. Chapter 109 of the New York Laws, of 1975.

149. Twersky AD, Cohen NB. Comparing medical providers: a first look at the new era of medical statistics. 58 Brooklyn L Rev 1992; 5:26-27.

150. Weindling P. The origins of informed consent: the International Scientific Commission on Medical War Crimes, and the Nuremberg Code. Bull Hist Med 2001; 75:37-71.

151. Bates T. Ethics of consent to surgical treatment. Br J Surg 2001; 88:1283-1284.

152. Bunch WH. Informed consent. Clin Orthop Rel Res 2000; 378:71-77.

153. Katz J. Reflections on informed consent: 40 years after its birth. J Am Coll Surg 1998; 186:466-474.

154. Moore MJ, Bennet CL. The learning curve for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The Southern Surgeons Club. Am J Surg 1995; 170:55-59.

155. Weinberg JJ, Ansong K, Smith AD. Complications of ureteroscopy in relation to experience: report of survey and author experience. J Urol 1987; 137:384-385.

156. Reinhardt UE. Academic medicine's financial accountability and responsibility. JAMA 2000; 284:1136-1138.

157. Halsted WS. The training of the surgeon. Am Med July 1904; 9:69-75.

158. Schwartz IS. The evolution of medical education. Surgery 1999; 1:17-18.

159. New York State Department of Health. Laparoscopic surgery. Memorandum no. 92-20, 1992.

160. Soper NJ. Society of American Gastrointestinal Endoscopic Surgeons and surgical education. Assuring that history does not repeat itself. Surg Endosc 2001; 15:775-780.

161. Society of American Gastrointestinal Endoscopic Surgeons. Granting of privileges for laparoscopic general surgery. Am J Surg 1991; 161:324.

162. Spencer FC. Deductive reasoning in the lifelong continuing education of a cardiovascular surgeon. Arch Surg 1976; 111:1177-1183.

163. Brasel KJ, Bragg D, Simpson DE, Weigelt JA. Meeting the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education competencies using established residency training program assessment tools. Am J Surg 2004; 188:9-12.

164. Leach DC. The ACGME competencies: substance or form? J Am Coll Surg 2001; 192:396-398.

165. Osler W. On the need of radical reform in our methods of teaching senior students. Med News 1903; 82:49-53.

166. Kohn LT, Corrigan JM, Donaldson MS, eds. To Err is Human: Building a Safer Health System. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1999.

167. Trunkey DD, Botney R. Assessing competency: a tale of two professions. J Am Coll Surg 2001; 192:385-395.

168. Carroll PR. Laparoscopic urologic surgery: differentiating what should be done from what can be done [editorial]. J Urol 1994; 151:1603-1604.

169. Wickham JEA. From butcher to bioengineer. J Urol 1991; 145:159A.

170. Margolis LH. The ethics of accepting gifts from pharmaceutical companies. Pediatrics 1991; 88:1233.

171. Velanovich V. Laparoscopic vs. open surgery. A preliminary comparison of quality-of-life outcomes. Surg Endosc 2000; 14:16-21.

172. Hunter JG. Clinical trials and the development of laparoscopic surgery. Surg Endosc 2001; 15:1-3.

173. Bergamaschi R. Farewell to see one, do one, teach one? Surg Endosc 2001; 15:637.

174. Meijer DW. Safety and quality assurance of endoscopic surgery [editorial]. Surg Endosc 2001; 11:147.

175. Livingston EH, Harwell JD. The medicolegal aspects of proctoring. Am J Surg 2002; 184:26-30.

176. Chenen AR. Proctoring can be a legal quagmire. Mod Healthcare 1984; 15:190-193.

177. Mosteller F. Innovation and evaluation. Science 1981; 211:881-886.


0 0

Post a comment