References

1. Kimball FN, Ferris HV. Papillomatous tumor of the renal pelvis associated with similar tumors of the ureter and bladder: a review of the literature and report of two cases. J Urol 1933; 31:257.

2. Strong DW, Pearse HD. Recurrent urothelial tumors following surgery for transitional cell carcinoma of the upper urinary tract. Cancer 1976; 38(5):2173-2183.

3. Murphy DM, Zincke H, Furlow WL. Management of high grade transitional cell cancer of the upper urinary tract. J Urol 1981; 125:25-29.

4. Krogh J, Kvist E, Rye B. Transitional cell carcinoma of the upper urinary tract: prognostic variables and post-operative recurrences. Br J Urol 1991; 67:32-36.

5. DeKernion J. "Management of Renal Cell Carcinoma" Plenary Session. AUA Annual Meeting, San Francisco, California, May 8-13, 2004.

6. Steinberg JR, Matin SF. Laparoscopic radical nephroureterectomy: dilemma of the distal ureter. Curr Opin Urol 2004; 14:61-65.

7. Ong AM, Bhayani SB, Pavlovich CP. Trocar site recurrence after laparoscopic nephroureterectomy. J Urol 2003; 170:1301.

8. McDonald HP, Upchurch WE, Sturdevant CE. Nephroureterectomy: a new technique. J Urol 1952; 67(6):804-808.

9. Hetherington JW, Ewing R, Philip NH. Modified nephroureterectomy: a risk of tumour implantation. Br J Urol 1986; 58:368.

10. Jones DR, Moisey CU. A cautionary tale of the modified "pluck" nephroureterectomy. Br J Urol 1993; 71:486.

11. Clayman RV, Kavoussi LR, Figenshau RS, Chandhoke PS, Albala DM. Laparoscopic nephroureterectomy: initial clinical case report. JLS 1991; 1(6):343-349.

12. Shalhav AS, Dunn MD, Portis AJ, Elbahnasy AM, McDougall EM, Clayman RV. Laparoscopic nephroureterectomy for upper tract transitional cell cancer: the Washington University experience. J Urol 200l; 163:1100-1104.

13. Kerbl K, Chandhoke P, McDougall E, Figenshau RS, Stone AM, Clayman RV. Laparoscopic stapled bladder closure: laboratory and clinical experience. J Urol 1993; 149:1437-1440.

14. Keeley FX, Tolley DA. Laparoscopic nephroureterectomy: making management of upper-tract transitional-cell carcinoma entirely minimally invasive. J Endourol 1998; 12(2):139-141.

15. McNeill SA, Chrisofos M, Tolley DA. The long-term outcome after laparoscopic nephroureterectomy: a comparison with open nephroureterectomy. BJU Int 2000; 86:619-623.

16. Gill IS, Soble JJ, Miller SD, Sung GT. A novel technique for management of the en bloc bladder cuff and distal ureter during laparoscopic nephroureterectomy. J Urol 1999; 161:430-434.

17. Gill IS, Sung GT, Hobart MG, et al. Laparoscopic radical nephroureterectomy for upper tract transitional cell carcinoma: the Cleveland Clinic experience. J Urol 2000; 163:1513-1522.

18. Angulo JC, Hontoria J, Sanchez-Chapado M. One-incision nephroureterectomy endoscopically assisted by transurethral ureteral stripping. Urol 1998; 52:203-207.

19. Landman J, Lev RY, Bhayani S, et al. Comparison of hand assisted and standard laparoscopic radical nephroureterectomy for the management of localized transitional cell carcinoma. J Urol 2002; 167:2387-2391.

20. Gonzalez CM, Batler RA, Schoor RA, Hairston JC, Nadler RB. A novel endoscopic approach towards resection of the distal ureter with surrounding bladder cuff during hand assisted laparo-scopic nephroureterectomy. J Urol 2001; 165:483-485.

21. Wong C, Leveillee RJ. Hand-assisted laparoscopic nephroureterectomy with cystoscopic en bloc excision of the distal ureter and bladder cuff. J Endourol 2002; 16(6):329-333.

22. Villicana P, Siddiq FM, Lopez-Pujals A, Bird VG, Leveillee RJ. Hand-assisted laparoscopic nephroureterectomy with simultaneous cystoscopic excision of ureter bladder closure is not neces sary. Abstract presented at the American Urological Association Annual Meeting, San Francisco, California May 8-13, 2004.

23. Hall MC, Womack S, Sagalowsky AI, Carmody T, Erickstad MD, Roehrborn CG. Prognostic factors, recurrence, and survival in transitional cell carcinoma of the upper urinary tract: a 30-year experience in 252 patients. Urol 1998; 52:594-601.

24. Cozad SC, Smalley SR, Austenfeld M, Noble M, Jennings S, Raymond R. Transitional cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis or ureter: patterns of failure. Urol 1995; 46:796-800.

25. Stifelman MD, Hyman MJ, Shichman S, Sosa RE. Hand-assisted laparoscopic nephroureterectomy versus open nephroureterectomy for the treatment of transitional-cell carcinoma of the upper urinary tract. J Endourol 2001; 15(4):391-395.

26. Klinger HC, Lodde M, Pycha A, Remzi M, Janetschek G, Margberger M. Modified laparoscopic nephroureterectomy for treatment of upper urinary tract transitional cell cancer is not associated with an increased risk of tumour recurrence. Eur Urol 2003; 44:442-447.

27. Jarrett TW, Chan DY, Cadeddu J, Kavoussi LR. Laparoscopic nephroureterectomy for the treatment of transitional cell carcinoma of the upper urinary tract. Urology 2001; 57:448-453.

28. Shalhav AL, et al. Laparoscopic nephroureterectomy for upper tract transitional cell cancer: technical aspects. J Erdourol 1998; 12:345-353.

COMMENTARY

John M. Fitzpatrick

Department of Surgery, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland

The minimally invasive treatment of urological disease has advanced considerably in the last 25 years. Those of us who remember open nephrolithotomies being performed on the same kidney for the third or fourth time will have seen the full extent to which invasive surgery has in many areas become a thing of the past. The new dawn of minimally invasive surgery in urology was heralded by the advent of percutaneous nephrolithotomy developed by Wickham, Marberger, and Alken in Europe and Segura and Clayman in the Unites States. In a relatively short time, this became the standard way of removing stones from the kidney.

However, extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy was introduced at almost the same time, and with this new, all-encompassing technology, we felt that nothing else was required to treat stones. However, it became clear that the best way of clearing the kidney of large stones was a combination of shock wave lithotripsy and percutaneous nephrolithotomy. In other words, minimally invasive surgery still had a very important role to play.

Laparoscopic surgery was popularized in general surgery and urology at more or less the same time. Clayman and his colleagues developed a technique for nephrectomy and nephroureterectomy, and Gill popularized the techniques of radical nephrectomy and partial nephrectomy. What became clear was that to learn these techniques required intensive training and mentoring. The fact that these techniques have become so widely popular is testament to the skill and patience of these opinion leaders.

The benefit to patients of the laparoscopic approach has been made clear in a large number of publications. The fact that laprascopic radical nephroureterectomy is, in fact, an endoscopic re-creation of the open procedure makes it easy to understand these advantages. The major limitation, apart from the loss of three-dimensional visualization and of tactile properties, is the use of a phrase that I do not likeā€”the "learning curve." I believe that most urologists realize that the concept of a learning curve can be avoided by careful tuition and mentoring.

In the future, it is likely that every department will have a section of laprascopic urology. My belief is that this will continue to grow and that the science will be developed with the improvement of technology. Whether robotic surgery will interfere with this progress remains to be seen. It behooves us all to encourage the development of laprascopic urology, which is definitely a benefit to our patients.

CHAPTER

10 Ways To Fight Off Cancer

10 Ways To Fight Off Cancer

Learning About 10 Ways Fight Off Cancer Can Have Amazing Benefits For Your Life The Best Tips On How To Keep This Killer At Bay Discovering that you or a loved one has cancer can be utterly terrifying. All the same, once you comprehend the causes of cancer and learn how to reverse those causes, you or your loved one may have more than a fighting chance of beating out cancer.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment