Summary

■ Exposure remains one of the keys to success in both open and laparoscopic surgery.

■ In laparoscopy, high-quality optics are absolutely essential to provide the necessary exposure for a successful surgical intervention.

■ The development of the digital video endoscope has been a major advance in the endoscopic systems.

■ The replacement of smaller caliber laparoscopes with integrated digital video endoscope can be expected in the near future.

■ Over the last few years, digital imaging has slowly revolutionized the field of video endoscopy.

■ Incorporating medical images into the patient's record and creating an image library can enhance urologic practice.

■ High-quality display systems are essential during endoscopic surgery.

■ Advances in virtual reality simulation offer a practical tool to practice endourologic procedures in an inanimate but dynamic, life-like environment.

■ Endourologic operative skills may be acquired more rapidly using virtual reality simulators.

■ Technological improvements lowering the cost of imaging devices and the cost of utilizing specialized telecommunications lines will make telemedicine systems more affordable and greatly enhance the performance of laparoscopic procedures in urology.

■ Robotics and head-mounted displays effect surgeon comfort.

■ The integration of technologic advancements within specially designed operating rooms allow for improved ergonomic performance of minimally invasive urologic procedures.

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