Summary

■ Although the majority of the reported studies yielded encouraging data, high-intensity focused ultrasound has not been introduced into broader clinical use for oncologic indications to date. In fact, tumor targeting is insufficient and cell damage from high-intensity focused ultrasound is difficult to target, control, and predict with current high-intensity focused ultrasound devices.

■ The antineoplastic effect of high-intensity focused ultrasound has been clearly demonstrated in vivo in a number of experimental settings. high-intensity focused ultrasound applied extracorporeal^ is capable of inducing precise, well-controlled contact- and irradiation-free in-depth tissue destruction. However, it needs to be emphasized that none of these experimental studies were 100% successful.

■ Compared to high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation of lesions in the liver, breast, prostate, and testes extracorporeal high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation of renal tumors is certainly more challenging. Promising results from other centers in China using the Chongqing "HAIFU" device give cause for optimism, but our own results show that it must definitely be categorized as experimental at present. Nevertheless, as early clinical experience with ESWL of urolithiasis has shown, relatively minor technical improvements may suddenly bring the clinical breakthrough.

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