■ In the carefully selected and prepared patient, previous abdominal surgery, coagulation disorders that have been reversed, obesity, and patients suffering from controlled cardiopulmonary disorders are still candidates for laparoscopy. Even with these risk factors, patients can still benefit from known advantages of laparoscopy over open surgery.

■ Patients with severe cardiopulmonary diseases have higher surgical risks regardless of the approach. Due to their low cardiopulmonary reserve, these patients may develop important complications during and after laparoscopic surgery.

■ The presence of ascites is considered a contraindication to laparoscopic surgery because of the increased risk of port site metastasis.

■ Laparoscopic surgery is a safe option in the elderly population. Age alone should not be considered an absolute contraindication for laparoscopy.

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