■ Laparoscopic radical nephrectomy is standard treatment for renal cell carcinoma. The indications continue to broaden.

■ The intraperitoneal approach is particularly useful for large lesions or in patients with a tumor in an ectopic or horseshoe kidney.

■ Transperitoneal laparoscopic nephrectomy has a complimentary role with retroperitoneal laparoscopic nephrectomy.

■ The retroperitoneal approach is preferred in patients with significant intra-abdominal scarring.

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