■ In our current practice, in the properly selected patient, laparoscopic ureterolithotomy, pyelolithotomy with pyeloplasty, retroperitoneoscopic nephrectomy and nephroureterectomy for nonfunctioning kidneys due to calculous diseases of kidneys are now offered in lieu of open surgery.

■ Open conversion may be occasionally necessary.

■ Prior open surgery and history of peritonitis are not necessarily regarded as contraindications in expert's hands.

■ Laparoscopic pyelolithotomy is performed only in selected cases. However, cases with perinephric adhesions such as xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis are difficult for the laparoscopic approach.

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