■ Horseshoe kidneys represent the most common renal fusion anomaly.

■ Nephrolithiasis, ureteropelvic junction obstructions, and renal masses are the most common indications for surgical intervention in patients with horseshoe kidneys.

■ Ureteropelvic junction obstructions and concurrent stones can be treated by laparoscopic pyeloplasty.

■ Nonfunctioning renal moiety and renal masses can be managed by laparoscopic heminephrectomy or a laparoscopic partial nephrectomy.

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