Virtual Reality And Simulation In Urology

Robert M. Sweet

Department of Urologic Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, U.S.A. Jeffrey Berkley

Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, U.S.A.

■ INTRODUCTION

■ VIRTUAL REALITY ROLE IN PROCEDURAL TRAINING

■ BUILDING A VIRTUAL REALITY SIMULATOR Step 1: Define a Desired Skill Set and

Learning Objectives Step 2: Design a Curriculum and Analyze

Where Simulation Would be Most Useful Step 3: Justify the Application Step 4: Define the Metrics Step 5: Recognize Which Sensory Modes are Important and Should/Can Be Simulated Step 6: Computer Processing Needs Step 7: Build Team Collaborations Step 8: Build and Render the Model Step 9: Texture Maps and Special Effects Step 10: Medical Instrumentation Step 11: Tracking Solutions Step 12: Orientation and Calibration of Metrics

Step 13: Digital Acquisition Devices (Input/Output Boxes)

Step 14: Collision Detection and

Deformation Step 15: Displays

Step 16: Raw Data Collection Repositories Step 17: Graphics-User Interfaces Step 18: Usability Studies Step 19: Validity/Reliability Studies Step 20: Commercialization Step 21: Implementation for Training Step 22: Define the Learning Curve Step 23: Implementation for Assessment/Credentialing SURVEY OF VIRTUAL REALITY UROLOGICAL SIMULATORS

COGNITIVE SIMULATION ENGINES COMPLETE PROCEDURES Transurethral Resection of the Prostate Skills: A Potential Training Crisis Virtual Reality Training for Ureteroscopic Skills

Virtual Reality Training for Laparoscopic

Skills SUMMARY REFERENCES

Every year at least 44,000 Americans die of medical errors. Medical errors are the seventh leading cause of death in the United States, greater than car accidents, breast cancer, or AIDS.

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