Learning Disabilities Ebooks Catalog

Adult Dyslexia

Adult Dyslexia

This is a comprehensive guide covering the basics of dyslexia to a wide range of diagnostic procedures and tips to help you manage with your symptoms. These tips and tricks have been used on people with dyslexia of every varying degree and with great success. People just like yourself that suffer with adult dyslexia now feel more comfortable and relaxed in social and work situations.

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Dyslexia Facts You Should Know

Dyslexia, Facts You Should Know Is A Unique Fact Filled E-book That Gathers Easy To Read Information About Dyslexia In One Place For The Interested Reader. Learn How to Cope With A Diagnosis of Dyslexia and What To Do Next. Every bit of this eBook is packed with the latest cutting edge information on Dyslexia. It took months to research, edit, and compile it into this intriguing new eBook. Here's what you'll discover in Dyslexia: Facts You Should Know: What is Dyslexia? History of Dyslexia. Is it Dyslexia or Something Else? How You Can Diagnose Yourself. Benefits of Catching Dyslexia Early. What is the Dyslexia Test? How to Get Everything You Will Need for Help in Coping with Dyslexia. Exploring Your Options for Schools and Programs. What is the Individualized Education Program? Alternatives to the Iep. The Roll Your Childs Teacher Plays. Your Part in Your Childs Education. Why Practice, Patience and Practicality are Most Important. Teens with Dyslexia. Success in Life: Adults Overcoming Dyslexia.

Dyslexia Facts You Should Know Summary


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Author: Dee Henry
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Specific Learning Disability

Specific learning disability means a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, that may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or to do mathematical calculations, including conditions such as perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia. The term does not include learning problems that are primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor disabilities, of mental retardation, of emotional disturbance, or of environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage. (34 C.F.R. 300.7) A team may determine that a child has a specific learning disability if The team may not identify a child as having a specific learning disability if the severe discrepancy between ability and achievement is primarily the result of a visual, hearing, or motor impairment mental retardation emotional disturbance or environmental,...

Children with physicallearning disabilities

It is important to ascertain or make an assessment as to whether a child has a physical or learning disability. It is easy to assume that a physically disabled child also has learning disabilities however, whatever the degree of disability, all children should be given the opportunity to be spoken to directly and to listen to explanations. The parents or carers of these children are almost always invaluable and completely dedicated to them. They are usually the best people for describing the optimum way to approach physical needs, such as lifting or transferring on to the X-ray table or introducing oral contrast. In some cases, it may be preferable to examine the child in their normal position, e.g. still in the wheelchair.

Auditory Linguistic Reading Disorder

Problems with the physical act of writing, drawing, copying figures, and other fine motor skills involving eye-hand coordination fall under this category of learning disorder. It also manifests as poorly organized writing and errors in spelling, punctuation, and grammar. The large motor skills (running, throwing, jumping) of children with this disorder are not involved. A child with a writing disorder may also have difficulty reading orally.

Learning Disabilities and the

Although reading may be easier and faster when sight is clear, visual problems generally do not cause learning disabilities, and eye defects are not responsible for reversal of letters. In the past, reading problems were blamed on the eyes, although children with a learning disability have no greater incidence of eye problems than the rest of the population. Other issues, such as dyslexia, attention-deficit hyper-activity disorder, social issues, or family problems are often found to be contributing to a child's poor attention in class or learning difficulties. It is important that a thorough medical eye examination be performed. The presence or absence of visual defects can be diagnosed and corrected. Once vision is corrected, no other examinations or therapies involving the eyes diminish a learning disability. Meta-analysis shows that children with learning disabilities do not benefit from visual training, muscle exercises, perceptual training, or hand-eye coordination exercises...

Learning Difficulties Dyslexia Attention Deficit Disorder and Prosopagnosia

Learning disorders have also turned individuals to art. They are widespread, affecting about 10-30 of the population with dyslexia being the most prevalent. Dyslexia, which is usually inherited, is noted by problems with reading, spelling, and writing. Now a recognized learning problem, people with dyslexia in the past were often considered to be less intelligent even though some of them like Leonardo da Vinci (Italian, 14521519) were geniuses. People with dyslexia often have difficulty learning a foreign language and Leonardo, who appears to have had a type of dyslexia known as surface dysgraphia, could never master Latin. As a result, he could not be a professional notary like his father nor attend university where classes were given in Latin. Instead, Leonardo decided he would become a disciple of experience and do his own empirical research rather than quoting the work of others. Focusing his keen mind on the natural world, he recorded notebooks filled with scientific...

Learning Disorders

The developmental learning disorders covered in this section involve difficulties with specific skills necessary for learning reading, writing, or mathematics. Children with these learning disorders have average or above average intelligence. They should be capable learners, but their learning disorder slows them down. About 5 percent of U.S. children receive the diagnosis of a learning disorder, although educators estimate that the number of children suffering silently from one or more mild learning disorders may be up to 20 percent. They often go undetected and untreated until the child reaches the first or second grade, when learning problems become more noticeable. The following three criteria are used to identify a child with a learning disorder All children with learning disorders share an unexpected failure to learn.

Reading Disorders

Proficiency in reading is considered the cornerstone of all academic learning. It's hard to learn most other academic subjects without solid reading skills. Reading includes identifying words, pronouncing words, spelling words, using words, and writing words. Children with reading disorders tend to have difficulty predominately with one or a narrow mixture of these skill areas. The term dyslexia has been used traditionally to refer to reversing letters and trouble visually identifying words. But this term has been subsumed under the broader category of reading disorders, within which the tendency to reverse letters and misread words are symptoms. To qualify as a reading disorder, a child's reading ability must be substantially below his grade level and what's expected for his age, intelligence, and education. He has trouble recognizing words, and commonly reverses his letters, especially b with d, and p with q. He may transpose letters, making pot into top. He may invert letters,...

Organization of Services

In general, pediatricians, general practitioners, and adult psychiatrists are the primary care providers for children and adolescents with psychiatric issues. However, referrals of children and adolescents for psychiatric treatment tend to be limited as a result of stigma attached to psychiatric illness and poor training at the graduate level of education. Families are more inclined to seek help for a child's academic difficulties and are more willing to pursue treatment options, including medication use, in the context of academic progress. In recent years, especially in metropolitan cities like Bangalore, practitioners have been receiving increasing referrals regarding learning disabilities, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder,

Therapeutic Interventions

Arrange for psychological testing to rule out emotional factors or learning disabilities as the basis for the client's maladaptive behavior give feedback to the client and his her family regarding psychological testing results. 10. Implement remedial procedures for learning disabilities that add to frustration. (16) 16. Refer the client to a special educator who will design remedial procedures for any learning disabilities that may be present in addition to ADD.

Patient Specific Factors

Medical complications also contribute to functional outcome. In addition to the effects of primary brain tumor treatment, adjuvant medications may also cause cognitive and mood disturbance. Steroid therapy, which is ubiquitous in this population of patients, can independently contribute to memory loss and psychiatric symptoms. Such medications as antiemet-ics and pain medications may also contribute to the patient's overall functional status. Patients with brain tumor often have medical complications, such as seizures, that further compromise brain function and have a negative impact on the person's social function, ability to drive, and so on. Brain tumor patients may also have co-existing neurologic or psychiatric illness, such as learning disabilities, cerebrovascular disease, or bipolar illness. Reactive mood and adjustment disorders may also contribute to cognitive impairment a patient who is depressed and preoccupied with his or her situation may exhibit attentional problems.

Diagnosis and Management

Neuropsychological testing may provide useful information in the assessment of the athlete with ATBI. Neuropsychological testing also allows the medical community to follow the evolution of cognitive and higher cortical deficits after a brain injury. A baseline preseason neuropsychological exam is recommended and includes tests on orientation, attention, memory, and information processing, among others. These tests may be repeated as early as 48 hours after a head injury. Usually, an uncomplicated concussion will have findings that revert to normal within 7 to 10 days. However, even mild abnormalities on exam indicate that there is an ongoing or persistent effect of the brain injury. An additive association between multiple episodes of concussion and learning disabilities has been demonstrated.

AD Gitler CB Brown L Kochilas J Li and JA Epstein

DiGeorge syndrome is a common human genetic disorder occurring in 1 of 4000 live births (Driscoll 1994 Epstein and Buck 2000 Epstein 2001). The syndrome is characterized by cardiac outflow tract defects, parathyroid deficiency, thymus and thyroid abnormalities, and craniofacial defects. Learning difficulties can also be associated. Many of the affected organs have neural crest contributions, suggesting that DiGeorge syndrome may be related to abnormal neural crest development. In many cases, deletions on human chromosome 22q11 have been associated with familial and sporadic cases (Goldmuntz et al. 1998).

Clinical Presentation

Signs and symptoms at the time of presentation depend on the location of the neoplasm. Most supratentorial lesions present with seizures, with the semiology related to the tumor location. Specifically, temporal lobe-based tumors usually present with medically intractable partial complex seizures. The duration of seizures prior to diagnosis may be quite extensive, often on the order of years (mean of 14 years, range 1 to 38 years in one study).17 Further, long-standing seizures in children, or the anti-convulsants used to treat them, may result in developmental delay, learning disabilities, and behavioral problems. Most gan-gliogliomas do not present with evidence of raised intracranial pressure, because their growth is typically indolent. Cerebellum-based tumors often present with ataxia and headaches

Left Brain Right Brain Split

This background discussion of right-left brain dichotomies is necessary to understand the unique creativity of Leonardo. To integrate so seamlessly the two hemispheric functions, Leonardo must have been born with some very peculiar wiring in his brain. We know several startling things about his mental faculties, the most striking of which was that he was ambidextrous and could write with equal facility forward and backward (mirror writing). Some of these features are found in people with dyslexia, a gender cognitive syndrome (affecting boys over girls 9 1) in which the letters b and d, and p and q are frequently transposed. Many neuroscientists theorize that dyslexia maybe due to a failure of brain dominance. In the dyslexic child, both hemispheres have nearly equal responsibility for the generation and understanding of speech, written language, and hand dominance, instead of the conventional arrangement in which hand preference and the preponderance of speech centers lie in the...

Clinical presentation and diagnosis

O ADHD is rarely encountered without comorbid conditions, and often is underdiagnosed. Between 40 and 75 of patients with ADHD will have one or more comorbidities (e.g., learning disabilities, oppositional defiant, conduct, anxiety, or depressive disorders).10 It is important to identify other coexisting conditions in patients with ADHD to select initial and modify ongoing treatment.

Lessons from Parents Who Learned the Hard

Sometimes you will encounter a committee that has expertise in dealing with learning disabilities or conditions other than ASDs. In this case, it may be up to you to educate the committee. For example, at the IFSP meeting of one family I consult with, the committee head kept using incorrect language, referring to the child's condition as PPD instead of PDD, and refused to give the child more than 10 hours per week of services. The parents had to fight back with information. They found themselves at the next meeting armed with research studies documenting cases similar to theirs in other states, as well as a lawyer who specialized in such cases. It took a lot of hard work and mediation, but the family ultimately did receive the services they requested.

Long Term Cognitive Sequelae

In the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study, 12,430 young adults who were at least 5 years postdiagnosis for pediatric cancer and 3,410 full siblings of the survivors were compared regarding use of special education services and educational attainment. Survivors were significantly more likely than siblings to require special education services. Survivors of tumors of the central nervous system, leukemia, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and neuroblastoma who did not receive special education services were significantly less likely to complete high school than were their siblings (Mitby et al. 2003). Another large study of childhood cancer survivors used parental reports to compare 800 survivors with 923 matched controls on educational outcomes. They found that survivors were more likely to have repeated a grade (21 vs. 9 ), to have educational problems (46 vs. 23 ), and to attend learning disability (19 vs. 7 ) or special education (20 vs. 8 ) programs than were controls. Survivors who had cranial...

Physical Outcomes of Long Term Survivors

Although the immediate toxicity of intensive chemotherapy, steroids, antibiotics, and radiation has been evident from the start, the long-term impact has only gradually become apparent. The term late effects is used to refer to the medical problems that can be traced to cancer treatment but that do not become apparent until 5-10 years later (Nunez et al. 2007). Long-term follow-up of childhood cancer survivors has led to an understanding of the potential problems associated with specific treatments. In some cases, the treatment has been modified in response to these findings. For example, because intensive radiation to the central nervous system in early childhood was found to be associated with significant learning disabilities later, oncologists worked to see how little radiation could be used and still be effective. Intrathecal methotrexate is now often used instead of cranial irradiation, with a signif

Juveniles and Competency to Stand Trial

Grisso and colleagues (1987) recommend that a juvenile's trial competency be questioned if any one of the following conditions is present 1) age 12 years or younger 2) prior diagnosis treatment for a mental illness or mental retardation 3) borderline intellectual functioning or learning disability and 4) observations that youth has deficits in memory, attention, or interpretation of reality. In a descriptive review of 136 juveniles ages 9-16 years who were referred for evaluation of trial competency in South Carolina, Cowden and McKee (1995) found that 80 of youths ages 9-12 years were incompetent to stand trial, nearly 50 of those ages 13 and 14 years were trial incompetent, and approximately 25 of 15- to 17-year-olds were incompetent to stand trial. Cooper (1997), in another study of juvenile offenders in South Carolina, found that a majority of juvenile offenders of all ages had significant deficits in their competence-related abilities. Juveniles ages 13 years and under and those...

Sanity Evaluation of Defendant

After providing the initial informed consent, the evaluator usually conducts a biopsychosocial psychiatric interview. Key areas to review include past psychiatric history and prior hospitalizations, family psychiatric history, educational history, any history of learning disabilities or mental retardation, and the defendant's social and relationship history, particularly as related to any of their crime victims.

Nonsurgical extractions

Extractions are the most common requirement for relief of crowding. There may be an indication for general anaesthesia in very young or nervous children, and those with learning difficulties. Local anaesthesia, with or without sedation, should be used wherever possible, bearing in mind that in most cases orthodontic treatment is elective. In some cases, it is better to delay treatment until the patient is more cooperative. On the other hand,

Cognitive Functioning

Adults with childhood-onset CKD are at increased risk for lower educational, employment, and occupational levels as well as for neuropsychological impairment and psychiatric difficulties (Icard et al. 2008). Duquette et al. (2007) used a cross-sectional design to compare 30 children with CKD with 41 age-matched healthy controls. Subjects with CKD showed evidence of mild impairments on IQ, math, and reading measures and were more likely than controls to have IQ scores below the average range. Compared with controls, youngsters with CKD met criteria for a learning disability with greater frequency and were at higher risk for grade retention and school absenteeism. Renal function was found to be a significant predictor of intellectual and academic scores.

What Practitioners Say It Does

Instruments that transmit sounds through the skin (cymatic therapy) are promoted to stimulate natural regulatory and immunologic systems. Practitioners claim that sound therapy in the form of rapid acoustic stimuli helps children with dyslexia. It is also claimed to help those with attention deficit disorder and other learning dysfunctions. The effectiveness of sound therapy is said to increase when used in conjunction with acupuncture.

Evidencedbased Practice

Again some people may have a co-morbid organic condition such as epilepsy that may warrant exclusion, although most trials again would evaluate whether the organic condition is primarily responsible for the symptoms of the disorder which they are trying to alleviate. Deteriorating brain disorders such as Alzheimer's disease may be a reasonable exclusion criterion as CBT relies on the carry-over of changes in one session to subsequent sessions. Similarly, people who have learning disabilities may also have some difficulties with CBT as it is currently devised, although therapists have extended treatment for depression to the learning disabilities field. Current trials also do not support the idea that lower IQ prevents therapeutic changes.38 But all current trials do have a lower cut-off for IQ, usually around 65.

Attention DeficitHyperactivity Disorder ADHD

Children with ADHD have difficulty paying attention. The most common disorder diagnosed in children, ADHD is characterized by the presence of chronic abnormal levels of inattention, hyperactivity, or their combination. Up to 12 percent of children are diagnosed with ADHD. Boys outnumber girls by a 3 1 ratio. Although they are usually of at least average intelligence, children with ADHD perform below average on reading, spelling, and arithmetic tests. For this reason, they are regarded as having a learning disorder. The least favorable response to a child's learning difficulties is no response at all. Without treatment or assistance, such a child's attitude toward school and his own ability to learn will both plummet into negativity. Children with learning disorders currently receive half of all special education services provided in U.S. schools. If educators and psychologists are right, there probably are more children who need help than are currently receiving it.

Four Stages of Screening

At high risk of having vision disorders, including those who are mentally retarded or who have trisomy 21 or cerebral palsy and all children who show signs or symptoms of visual problems, experience school failure, or have reading difficulties or other learning problems (e.g., dyslexia). It is important to note that children with learning disabilities such as dyslexia have the same incidence of ocular abnormalities (strabismus, refractive error) as children without such disabilities. Dyslexia involves interpretation by cortical processing centers and does not generally indicate any ocular pathology. Eye defects do not cause letter, number, or word reversal.

Complications of Surgery

Neuropsychologic and behavioral disturbances were found in 36 to 60 of children who underwent radical resec-tion.1,33,59,72 A decrease in school performance and learning disability occurs in up to a third of children.59,72,78 Merchant et al found a drop in IQ scores of 9.8 points in 15 pediatric patients.45 Whereas neuropsychologic outcome is most often studied in children, adults can have neuropsychologic sequelae as well. Donnet et al found in a study of 22 adults that 9 had severe memory and intellectual deficits and 14 had moderate learning deficits.13 Van Effenterre et al, in contrast, found in a study of 122 patients that the rate of normal neuropsychologic function was 91 as assessed by patients and their families.69

Cognitive Functional Tests

Cognitive functional tests measure specific capacities and behaviors that relate to everyday function. The scores reflect a person's ability relevant to established population norms. These tests have right and wrong answers and measure specific learning and reasoning capacities, such as verbal ability, abstract reasoning, pattern recognition, visual-motor integration, and tracking of visual cues. Cognitive tests include intelligence tests, achievement tests, and tests to assess specific cognitive areas and deficits, such as attention deficits and dyslexia. The tests are often used in educational assessments. Achievement tests, for example, track performance of students in different grades, as well as competitiveness for placement in higher education (e.g., college boards, Medical College Admission Test MCAT , and Law School Admission Test LSAT ).

Chronobiological Disorders

DSPS that presents in adolescence is sometimes misdiagnosed as narcolepsy, depression, chronic fatigue, or as a learning disorder. Knowledge that sleepiness occurs mainly in the morning and continuous restful sleep occurs when patients go to bed late and arise late helps the clinician arrive at the correct diagnosis.

Pediatric Illness Falsification in the Child

Child Falsification Illness

In Ayoub's (2006) study of 30 children with MBP, 23 had gastrointestinal symptoms including vomiting, failure to thrive or grow, reflux, esophagi-tis, chronic secretory diarrhea, neurological intestinal pseudo-obstruction, and chronic abdominal pain 30 were reported to have recurrent seizures 20 had repeated episodes of apnea 13 experienced abnormal serum insulin levels either as uncontrolled diabetes or as unexplained hypoglyce-mia 10 were diagnosed with rare autoimmune or genetic disorders and 10 had unexplained exacerbations of asthma (Ayoub 2006). In addition, 7 were poisoned and had feigned bleeding difficulties. A final group of children in Ayoub's (2006) prospective study had psychiatric or learning disabilities that were exaggerated, fabricated, or induced ( 10 ) their problems included ADHD, bipolar disorder, and psychosis.

Why are so many more children diagnosed with ASDs today

The most widely held theory about the increased number of cases of autism spectrum disorders points to both an improved definition of the disorder and the ability of doctors to make more complete assessments. The ultimate authority on psychiatric conditions, the DSM-IV-TR, has been revised to include ASDs (referred to as PDD in the manual) as disorders that encompass many different diagnoses but eliminate mental retardation and learning disabilities. According to this theory, more children are diagnosed because of a heightened awareness of symptoms and a broader definition of ASDs. But does an increase in diagnoses reflect an actual increase in the number of people who have the disorder Some experts would argue that there are other factors responsible for the escalating cases of ASDs, such as prenatal or environmental causes or childhood immunizations.

Ways of reading How knowledge and use of strategies are related to reading comprehension

If the relation between meta-cognitive knowledge about the reading strategies and comprehension ability is found to be an indirect one that is mediated by word reading difficulties, a good way to increase the (efficient) use of reading strategies would be to improve word reading accuracy. Alternatively, there may be a much more direct relation between such knowledge and comprehension skill less skilled comprehenders may be less aware of different 'ways to read' and or they may have less control over their reading and be less able to change their reading strategy. If the relation between knowledge and comprehension skill is found to be a direct one, it would be beneficial to teach and practice the necessary meta-cognitive skills. Meta-cognitive knowledge and skills have been successfully taught to populations of normal children (Paris & Jacobs, 1 984 Paris, Saarnio & Cross, 1 986) and also those with learning disabilities (Lucangeli, Galderisi & Cornoldi, 1995), but knowledge...

Retrospective FollowUp Studies

Randomized studies of long-term psychotherapies and psychoanalyses are extremely rare. Nevertheless, a classic truly randomized comparison between high-and low-frequency long-term psychoanalytic psychotherapy was reported by Ileinicke (1965 Ileinicke and Ramsey-Klee 1986 . The patient population was fairly specific children with reading difficulties, 7-10 years of age. Interestingly, in the low-frequency group, the children improved at a faster rate than the children in the high-frequency group during the first year, but during the second year the four-times-a-week group caught up and surpassed the low-frequency group.

Nursing and the new professionalism

Project 2000 established a single point of entry to nurse training by abolishing the EN grade of nurse existing ENs were offered the possibility of undertaking conversion courses leading to RN status. Nurse education was relocated to institutes of higher education. All non-degree nurses were to follow an 18-month common foundation programme followed by 'branch' programmes for particular specialities - adult, child, mental health and learning disability. Learners' contribution to service provision was reduced from 60 to 20 per cent. There was a shift to a health, rather than a disease-oriented, curriculum, an emphasis on people in the wider socio-cultural context and practical placements that aimed to prepare students for work in a range of institutional and non-institutional settings. Academic skills were to be valued and rewarded by a Diploma in higher education.

Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome and Other Tic Disorders

Clinical Manifestations and Associated Disorders.Tics are defined as simple or complex repetitive movements that occur out of background of normal motor activity. They are usually fast (myoclonic) but can be slow (dystonic). They increase with fatigue and after stress and decrease with concentration. y GTS is characterized by chronic waxing and waning motor and vocal tics, usually beginning between the ages of 2 and 21 years. It affects boys more frequently than girls. About half the patients start with simple motor tics, such as frequent eye blinking, facial grimacing, head jerking, or shoulder shrugging, or with simple vocal tics such as throat clearing, sniffing, grunting, snorting, hissing, barking, or other noises. Complex motor tics include squatting, hopping, skipping, hand shaking, and ritualized movements such as compulsive touching of objects, people, or self. Complex vocal tics include semantically meaningful utterances, including shouting of obscenities and profanities...

Various Transporter Defects Hartnups Disease

The evaluation involves simple urine amino acid chromatography, which will detect the neutral aminoaciduria, and oral loading tests with L-tryptophan, which will detect the indoluria. No consistent picture of abnormalities has arisen from brain CT, MRI, and PET studies. To treat symptomatic subjects, nicotinamide, rather than nicotinic acid, is given orally at 50 to 300 mg day. Both the rash and ataxia respond. A high protein diet may help prevent attacks in those with low plasma amino acid resting levels. Although mental retardation may occur, dementia does not. There may be learning difficulties, but most patients have normal mentation. Further specific therapy awaits elucidation of the specific membrane transport carrier system and whether the defect is of transport activation, regulation, or direct transporting, as well as mapping and cloning of the gene. As yet there are no animal models.

The Concept of Scatter

In IQ testing, most persons show relative strengths and weaknesses, indicated by higher and lower scores. However, in the absence of psychopathol-ogy, cognitive impairments, and learning disabilities, the difference in scores is generally not statistically significant. That is, the subtests do not vary by more than 3 points, and the differences across domains vary no more than Different types of scatter are associated with different psychiatric problems. For example, within subtests, scatter occurs when a person gets some easy items wrong and some hard items correct that is, performance is irregular. That pattern can be a sign of attention deficit, distractibility related to anxiety, trauma, depression, and psychosis. Scatter between domains, in which the verbal domain is over 15 points higher than the perceptual and processing domains, is an indicator of a performance learning disability associated with Asperger's syndrome and autism. Here is an example of intratest scatter...

Assessing Development in the School Age Child

Developmental surveillance in a school-age child should focus on identification of unsuspected learning problems, including attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), mild mental retardation, and learning disabilities, as well as detection of emotional problems such as anxiety, depression, or school phobia. Emotional problems can be screened for using the Pediatric Symptom Checklist (PSC). The PSC is a one-page questionnaire that is relatively easy to administer and interpret during routine well-child care. Positive results should prompt the physician to probe Federal law (IDEA) mandates a free and appropriate education for all children, regardless of handicapping condition. Therefore, if a child is suspected to have a learning disability, the school is obligated to evaluate and provide necessary services, free of charge (AAP, 1999). The parent should be advised to request the evaluation, called the Multi-Factored Evaluation (MFE), in writing. Federal law requires the MFE be...

Dysgraphia and the Split Brain

Dysgraphia - handwriting disability, can come about, as we have seen, as a result of living in a largely preliterate culture. It can also come about as a developmental disorder due to genetic accident, injury, or illness. Dysgraphia seldom occurs in isolation, as it is often concomitant with related disorders such as alexithymia, dyslexia, dyscalculia, parkinsonism, hepatic encephalopathy, aphasia, attention-deficit disorder, and various emotional pathologies. Still-developing dysgraphic students are apt to also have physical disabilities, sensory impairments, mental impairments, or emotional disorders. Dysgraphia stands in the way of academic success. Students with dysgraphia in the United States are eligible for special educational services, and are apt to be placed in categorical classroom programs designed for children with specific learning disabilities.

Megavitamin and orthomolecular therapy

Megavitamin therapists treat patients who have cancer, as well as those suffering from diabetes, schizophrenia, AIDS, pneumonia, flu, learning disabilities, depression, aging, autism, skin problems, hyperactivity, mental retardation, arthritis, and other diseases. The American Psychiatric Association and the NIH issued statements about megavitamin or orthomolecular therapies for psychiatric diseases, calling them and their unsubstantiated promotion ineffective, harmful, and deplorable.

Because its there Why some children count rather than infer numerical relationships

Forty children (3 years 5 months to 4 years 3 months, M 3 years 9 months, S.D. 2.6 months), from three pre-school playgroups in a predominantly White, urban population took part. None of the children had any identified learning difficulties. Nineteen 3-year-olds (3 years 8 months to 4 years 0 months M 3 years 10 months, S.D. 1.6 months) and twenty-six 4-year-olds (4 years 1 month to 4 years 8 months M 4 years 4 months, S.D. 2.2 months) from two pre-school playgroups in a predominantly White, urban population took part. None of the children had any identified learning difficulties. None had taken part in Experiment 1.

Phoneme manipulation not onsetrime manipulation ability is a unique predictor of early reading

Regression analyses showed that, after control for extraneous variables, phonemic awareness but not onset-rime awareness measures uniquely predicted later reading. Furthermore, in a highly conservative analysis that also controlled for reading ability at the first point of testing, phoneme awareness but not onset-rime awareness predicted significant unique variance in later reading. This final analysis is important, as it shows that the predictive validity of phoneme awareness is not itself simply a consequence of early reading skills. Hulme et al. concluded that screening phoneme awareness is a practical measure for early identification of children who may be at risk of later reading difficulties.

Targets Of Pharmacological Treatment Clinical Substrate

Schizophrenia is characterized by a wide range of symptoms, accompanied by significant deficits in function and marked diminution in the quality of life. Since no cure currently exists, pharmacological treatment is directed at inducing and maintaining remission of various symptom dimensions. Treatment-relevant domains of pathology include positive symptoms (delusions, hallucinations, suspiciousness, disorganized thinking), negative symptoms (impoverished speech and thinking, lack of social drive, flatness of emotional expression, apathy), cognitive and neuropsychological dysfunction average intelligence quotient (IQ) in schizophrenia is 80 to 84, with prominent memory and learning difficulties , and mood symptoms (depression, anxiety). Schizophrenia presents a unique set of symptoms in each individual affected, creating considerable diversity of clinical presentation. To a large extent, the unique features of each case are defined by the relative contribution of various domains to the...

Sex Chromosomal Abnormalities

Affected children have small, firm testes, and adult patients have azoospermia. y This disorder is a common cause of primary hypogonadism and male infertility. Although a male phenotype is typical, delayed or poorly developed secondary sex characteristics are present, and about half the patients have varying degrees of gynecomastia, androgen deficiency, and eunuchoid features. These patients tend to be tall and have long legs, and adults have an increased incidence of pulmonary disease, varicose veins, diabetes mellitus, and breast cancer. y Serum levels of follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone are increased early in the second decade, whereas testosterone concentrations are normal to low. Plasma levels of estradiol are normal or high. Affected individuals have cognitive abnormalities including impaired auditory sequential memory with delayed language development and associated learning disorders. y There is a slight lowering of the mean IQ and an increased incidence of...

Evaluation of Pupils to Determine Eligibility

504 regulations define mental impairment as any mental or psychological disorder including a learning disability. Pupils with learning disabilities (e.g., dyslexia) who do not show a severe discrepancy between achievement and ability are handicapped within the meaning of 504 if their condition substantially limits a major life activity, such as learning.

Companion animals in schools

In discussing pets as therapy, one tends to relate to the health-giving aspects alone, but pets have also been found to have a therapeutic effect in education. Researchers in Austria discovered that the presence of a dog in a primary school class helped disruptive children to concentrate more on their lessons and to become less boisterous and attention seeking (Le Fevre 2004). A wide range of animals, including dogs, ponies and even pigs, have been introduced into schools for children with autism and severe learning difficulties. As well as being educational in terms of learning about body parts and nature, these animals have brought many psychological benefits by improving self-esteem, teaching nurturance and inducing a more empathic attitude towards other peoples' needs.

Resistance to Thyroid Hormone

RTH is a rare disorder that results from target cell in-sensitivity to thyroid hormones. Newborn screening for congenital hypothyroidism can detect RTH if both T4 and thyroid-stimulating hormone are measured. The incidence of RTH is the same for males and females. Clinical presentation varies in individuals affected by RTH, and some people are asymptomatic. Behavioral characteristics (and their overall frequency) associated with RTH include emotional disturbances (73 ), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (70 ), hyperactivity (19 -42 ), learning disabilities (21 -32 ), and hearing deficits (25 ) (Hauser et al. 1993 Weiss and Refe-toff 2000). Limited data indicate that supraphysio-logical treatment with fast-acting thyroid hormone reduces the expression of both hyperactivity and im-pulsivity in children with RTH (Weiss et al. 1997).

Bone Marrow Transplantation

Children undergoing bone marrow transplantation are exposed to high levels of chemotherapy and radiation and are thus at high risk for many of the physical sequelae, including neurocognitive impact (Wilkins et al. 2007). Typical problems encountered by over 25 of survivors in the first 10 years after transplant include infections, cataracts, bone and joint complications, hypothyroidism, learning disabilities, and psychological problems (Ferry et al.

Complications of Radiation Therapy

Tumors not including craniopharyngiomas, 60 were mentally retarded with IQ less than 69. The incidence of mental retardation or dementia and vascular complications of radiation therapy for craniopharyngioma is highly correlated with the maximum dose 40 in children and 45 in adults for doses greater than 61 Gy and 0 for doses less than 61 Gy.57 In children who had received radiation therapy, 32 to 33 had poor school performance or required special schooling because of moderate to severe learning disability after treatment.22,78 Merchant et al found a drop in IQ scores of 1.25 points in 15 children treated with limited surgery and irradiation compared with 9.8 points in the surgery-only group.45 Although the results of the damaging effects of radiation on the intellectual function of young children younger than 3 years has not been studied specifically in craniopharyngiomas, we do not employ radiation therapy in children younger than 3 years of age who have undergone a subtotal...

Case 7 Damien David Kingdon DAMIEN

Damien was born in 1970 in Southampton. His parents divorced when he was 10 and he has been estranged from his father since. He had two older brothers, one with learning disabilities who lived in a residential home, and another in the army. He had quite a fraught relationship with his mother and his great-aunt, who live nearby. He described his early years as happy, but by the age of 13 he was truanting and was expelled from school when he was 15, although he still gained three O levels at the age of 16 after spending some time in care, in a children's home. He then obtained work short-term with a building site for a few months.

Aromatherapy Practice

Although aromatherapists consider themselves professionals, there is no Hippocratic oath involved. The aromatherapist, being nonmedically qualified, may not even be acquainted with most of the illnesses or symptoms, so there could be a very serious mistake made as potentially serious illnesses could be adversely affected by being treated by a layperson. Some, but not all, aromatherapists ask the patients to tell their doctor of the aromatherapy treatment. Counseling is greatly recommended by aromatherapy schools. Aromatherapists are not necessarily, however, trained in counseling, and with few exceptions could do more damage than good, especially when dealing with psychiatric illness, cases of physical or drug abuse, people with learning difficulties, and so on, where their treatment should only be complementary and under a doctor's control (Lis-Balchin, 2006).

Cognitive Changes in Children With Type 1 Diabetes

Evidence suggests that children with type 1 diabetes may experience a wide range of cognitive difficulties associated with their disease. A number of studies document that these children are at risk for learning disabilities and may experience difficulties with attention, processing speed, long-term memory, and executive functioning (e.g., McCarthy et al. 2003 Rovet and Alvarez 1997 Schoenle et al. 2002). As a result, academic problems may emerge, particularly for those children who have earlier age at onset and who tend to have severe, recurring hypoglycemic episodes. Neurocognitive screening or a complete neuropsychological evaluation should therefore be considered for youth with type 1 diabetes, particularly for those who have experienced many negative glycemic events or who are struggling with school performance. Such an evaluation may well help the school develop an Individualized Education Plan that addresses needed academic and or physical accommodations.

Patient Care and Monitoring

Arrange for patient follow-up after discharge from the hospital. Continue to monitor for neurologic sequelae for several months after completion of treatment, and educate the patient and family in this regard. Serious complications that may occur include, among others, hearing loss, hemiparesis, quadriparesis, muscular hypertonia, ataxia, seizure disorders, mental retardation, learning disabilities, and obstructive hydrocephalus.

Children Eligible for Services

Mental retardation, hearing impairments (including deafness), speech or language impairments, visual impairments (including blindness), serious emotional disturbance (hereafter referred to as emotional disturbance ), orthopedic impairments, autism, traumatic brain injury, other health impairments, or specific learning disabilities and who, by reason thereof, needs special education and related services (Pub. L. No. 105-17, 602, 111 Stat. 43 1997 ). (10) Specific learning disability. See text. IDEA-Part B definitions that concern sensory, motor, and speech impairments typically pose few problems. The definitions of mental retardation, specific learning disability, emotional disturbance, and other health impairment frequently have been a source of confusion and disagreement, and they are discussed in the text that follows.

Purposes of Neuropsychological Examination

As with other psychological assessments, neuropsychological assessments can provide important information for educational planning, especially for children. Documentation of basic intellectual abilities helps determine appropriate classroom placement (e.g., enriched environment, special education) for school-age children. Such tests also aid in the identification of children with severe intellectual deficits, such as mental retardation. Differences between intellectual ability and academic achievement are used in the identification of specific learning disabilities. In neurological conditions like Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome, neuropsychological assessments can be an integral component to individual educational plans by identifying strengths and weaknesses in academic abilities, as well as indicating co-morbid conditions like attention deficit disorder, hyperactivity, and obsessive-compulsive behaviors.

Pantothenic Acid Vitamin A and Vitamin D

Vitamin A, derived from beta-carotene, is necessary for normal vision and reproduction. Deficiency leads to night blindness and corneal ulceration. y Hypervitaminosis of 25,000 IU daily for 1 to 2 years may cause symptoms of pseudotumor cerebri, including raised intracranial pressure and visual disturbances. y , W Hypervitaminosis in pregnant mothers may lead to birth defects and learning disabilities.

Emotionalpersonality Functions

Disease processes may present with a similar neurocognitive picture. Consideration of this issue is particularly important because HIV-infected individuals quite often present with histories that include other problems (e.g., alcohol drug abuse, depression and other psychiatric disorders, learning disabilities, head injury). In addition, concurrent CNS processes such as metabolic encephalopathy and OIs can also overlap with respect to cognitive deficits.

Diffuse Hypoperfusion Syndromes Cerebral and Spinal Cord

If there is ischemia in the border zone territory of the anterior, middle, and posterior cerebral arteries, there may be bilateral parieto-occipital infarcts. There can be a variety of visual defects, including lower altitudinal visual field defects, optic ataxia, cortical blindness, disorders of ocular pursuit, and abnormalities in judging size, distance, and movement. If there is ischemia between the territories of the anterior and middle cerebral arteries bilaterally, a syndrome of bibrachial sensorimotor impairment can occur. Initially, there is weakness of the entire upper limbs, but later the weakness may be confined to the forearms and hands. Saccadic eye movements may be impaired due to involvement of the frontal eye fields. In ischemia to the border zone regions between the middle and posterior cerebral arteries, there can be bilateral parietotemporal infarctions. Patients have cortical blindness initially that may improve. However, there are a number of defects in higher...

Cognititve Function Assessed

The scores derived from these measures provide important information on neuropsychological and educational abilities. They allow comparisons of an individual patient's educational development to normative expectations. They also help identify specific areas in need of remediation. Finally, academic achievement tests provide important information in the diagnosing of specific learning disabilities. The presence of learning disabilities is suggested when there is a large discrepancy between measures of intellectual ability and measures of academic achievement. Additional testing is required to formally assign a diagnosis of learning disabilities. The most commonly used tests of academic achievement are the Peabody Individual Achievement Test-Revised (PIAT-R) y and the Wide Range Achievement Test-Revised (WRAT-R).y Both of these tests assess reading, arithmetic, and spelling. The PIAT-R has additional scales assessing the patient's fund of general information and reading...

Metacognitive Research

The fact that the link between metacognition and thinking skills, which encouraged application of the former to improve the latter has resulted in a number of researchers focusing on groups with learning difficulties. The view that metacogni-tive processes of self-monitoring and self-regulation are fundamental determinants of competent functioning in the real world has resulted in several research studies relating metacog-nitive dysfunction to schizophrenia.

Neurofibromatosis 1

In approximately 40 of NF1 patients.68 Occasionally, tumors may develop in the brain, on cranial nerves, or in the spinal cord. Approximately 50 of people with NF1 also have learning disabilities. Radiologically, 30 to 60 of NF1 patients show hyperintense signal on T2-weighted MR images of the brain.33

Occipital Lobes

Resection of the occipital lobe will result in a contralateral homonymous hemianopia. The extent of resection is restricted to 3.5cm from the occipital pole in the dominant hemisphere because of the angular gyrus, where lesions can produce dyslexia, dysgraphia and acalculia. In the non-dominant hemisphere, up to 7cm may be resected.

Before the crash

Rimel, Jane, and Bond (1990) summarised the cross-cultural research findings with TBI sufferers and note that someone sustaining a TBI is more likely to be male than female (two to three times more likely), between 15 and 29 years of age, single rather than married, unemployed, of lower socioeconomic status, living in a congested urban area, and more likely than the general population to have a previous history of alcohol and or drug abuse, marital discord, and learning disability (Kraus & Chu, 2005). Inevitably, this demographic picture has important implications for the focus of this discussion on the effects of TBI on emotional and behavioural functioning.


The caveat to this neural plasticity is that as you age, the rewiring of your neural connections gets harder and takes longer. Interventions with children and teens in response to emotional and psychological problems or learning disabilities are now routinely and effectively done as early as possible. These interventions may include psychotherapy for disorders such as depression or OCD. There are also methods for the retraining of vision and other sense perceptions for learning problems such as dyslexia. The advantage of doing any of these interventions earlier rather than later in a child's life is to intervene and help the brain rewire before its connections are set in their ways.


A Director of Special Education felt clearer guidelines were needed to determine whether or not children qualified as learning disabled under IDEA-Part B. He developed a district policy that required all children with suspected learning disabilities to be evaluated using the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities (COG) and the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Achievement (ACH) (Woodcock, McGrew, & Mather, 2001), and that comparisons of scores on the COG and ACH be used to identify children with aptitude-achievement discrepancies suggestive of a learning disability.


M., and Heeger, D. J. (1998). Functional magnetic resonance imaging of early visual pathways in dyslexia. J. Neurosci. 18(17), 6939-6951. Eden, G. F., VanMeter, J. W., Rumsey, J. M., Maisog, J. M., Woods, R. P., and Zeffiro, T. A. (1996). Abnormal processing of visual motion in dyslexia revealed by functional brain imaging. Nature 382(6586), 66-69. Stein, J., and Walsh, V. (1997). To see but not to read. The magnocellular theory of dyslexia. Trends Neurosci. 20(4), 147-152.

Heavy metal toxicity

Symptoms of acute heavy metal toxicity may be more easily recognized if there is a sufficient degree of suspicion and awareness of potential sources of exposure. Following acute toxic exposures, symptoms usually appear rapidly, thus diagnosis and treatment are often prompt (Ferner 2001). However, symptoms of chronic toxicity can be vague, so the establishment of a cause and effect relationship becomes difficult and symptoms may be misdiagnosed as those of a non-toxicological illness. The symptoms of chronic toxicity, e.g. impairment of brain function (cognitive dysfunction), learning difficulties, nervousness, insomnia, lethargy, and general malaise, also tend to vary in intensity with time. Heavy metal toxicity usually needs to be confirmed by appropriate laboratory investigations (e.g. via blood or urine analysis), therefore there are often delays in diagnosis and in the implementation of appropriate therapy following chronic exposures.

Music Therapy

Music therapy is an established health profession that aims to help people who have difficulties with social, physical, mental and emotional functions such as communication, cognitive functioning, learning difficulties, autism, dementia, and depression. Because music is such a powerful communication medium, it can sometimes be used to interact with a client when attempts to do so through words alone have failed. Following an assessment of the client's needs the music therapist, who is a skilled and experienced musician, will use a range of musical styles including improvisation, to try and establish interaction with the client. The music that is successful may provide an indication of the client's prevailing mood. The practitioner can then manipulate the music to facilitate positive outcomes such as mood improvement and confidence, and encourage transfer of these to other aspects of the client's life. Song writing, singing, or other musical performances may also be introduced as part...

Cognitive Issues

Approximately 10 -15 of children who survive bacterial meningitis infection have severe sequelae such as deafness, motor impairments, epileptic seizures, and learning disabilities (Koomen et al. 2004). It is believed that an additional 20 of meningitis survivors experience more subtle cognitive, academic, and behavioral difficulties (Koomen et al. 2004). Baraff et al. (1993) conducted a meta-analy-sis of all the medical reports that delineated the outcomes of bacterial meningitis published after 1955. Reports from 4,418 children who had acute bacterial meningitis were analyzed to see if the patients experienced any type of neurological sequelae 10.5 of children had deafness, 5.1 had profound bilateral deafness, 5.1 had mental retardation, 4.2 had spasticity, 3.5 had paresis, 4.2 had seizure disorder, and 83.6 had no detectable sequelae. Prevalence of sequelae varied significantly by type of bacterial agent (Baraff et al. 1993).

General discussion

Improved through instruction, but the benefits do not readily transfer to standardized reading and comprehension tests (Paris & Jacobs, 1984 Paris, Saarnio & Cross, 1986). The lack of transfer may be taken as a sign that meta-cognitive skills are not that crucial for discourse-level comprehension however training populations who have learning disabilities has met with more success (Lucangeli, Galderisi & Cornoldi, 1995). Another possibility is that performance on the comprehension tests used in these earlier studies was restricted by word reading accuracy, improvement of which was not the focus of training. In addition, it may be that particular populations benefit from such training to a greater extent than others. It should be noted that the children in the Lucangeli et al. study were of normal intelligence, which may have facilitated their ability to take advantage of such training. IQ measures were not reported in the work by Paris and colleagues, but it is plausible that children...

Mild Head Injury

Recreation are reported by American hospitals yearly. Many more occur. A variety of reasonable guidelines have been made about when to allow an athlete to return to play.254 Most athletes recover by 10 days after the concussion. The combination of a learning disability and concussion in college football players appears to synergistically lower subsequent cognitive performance.255 Amateur soccer players are also at greater risk compared to other athletes for impaired memory and plannning performance, especially after known concussion and probably associated with frequent headers to move the soccer ball.

Internet Resources

COUNCIL FOR LEARNING DISABILITIES (CLD) An international organization that promotes effective teaching and research. CLD is composed of professionals who represent diverse disciplines and who are committed to enhance the education and lifespan development of individuals with learning disabilities. CLD establishes standards of excellence and promotes innovative strategies for research and practice through interdisciplinary collegiality, collaboration, and advocacy. THE HELP GROUP A nonprofit organization serving children with special needs related to autism, Asperger's disorder, ADHD, learning disabilities, mental retardation, abuse, and emotional problems. www.thehelpgroup.org

The Team

The psychologist or neuropsychologist has several roles on a comprehensive team. He or she provides both diagnostic and therapeutic services. The first aspect of diagnosis is to determine what parts of the brain are not working properly and why, through the use of various standardized tests of cognition, memory, and function that are described earlier in this book. The second aspect of diagnosis, which is based in part on the person's clinical experience, may include identifying the structural component of the disorder, if one exists the presence of subclinical seizure equivalents medication effects and unrelated and independent learning disabilities. The psychologist is also called upon to assist with or organize the intracarotid amytal procedure, also referred to as the Wada test. In most comprehensive centers, the psychologist also provides consultative support for patients who need it. These services include individual standard short- or long-term counseling and specialized...

Language disorders

Certain brain lesions may impair the ability to read (alexia or acquired dyslexia) or to write (agra-phia dysgraphia). Both conditions are commonly In central dyslexias, the impairment is independent of the presentation modality (visual, auditory or tactile) and therefore also involves writing and spelling. Deep dyslexic patients may reach the meaning of some written words, including irregular words (producing semantic paraphasias, orange for lemon), but are unable to read function words or nonwords that are deprived of meaning. In contrast, in surface dyslexia patients can read aloud regular words and pseudowords (because they can convert letters, written graphemes, to their corresponding sound), but have difficulty reading irregular words or accessing their meaning. These opposite types of impairment have shown the existence of two pathways for reading, a fast whole-word recognition with access to meaning (used when one reads frequent meaningful words) and a step-by-step conversion...

Remission Induction

Leukemic invasion of the CNS is considered to be an almost universal event in patients, even in those whose CSF cytology shows no apparent disease. Thus, all patients with ALL and AML leukemia receive intrathecal (IT) chemotherapy. Although this is often referred to as prophylaxis, it more realistically represents treatment6 CNS prophylaxis relies on IT chemotherapy (e.g., methotrexate, cytarabine, and corticost-eroids), systemic chemotherapy with dexamethasone and high-dose methotrexate, and craniospinal irradiation (XRT) in selected high-risk patients.11 Cranial radiation was once a common intervention, but it is now reserved for only high-risk patients in whom IT treatment is inadequate. Its use has diminished substantially once the efficacy of IT treatment was evident, and the toxicities associated with radiation, learning disabilities, growth retardation, and secondary malignancies, were recognized. IT therapy has replaced cranial XRT as CNS prophylaxis for all except the very...

Inorganic Lead

Learning disorders decline learning disabilities attention disorder Clinical Features and Associated Findings. Acute signs of lead toxicity in children include listlessness, drowsiness with clumsiness, and possibly ataxia. With very high levels of lead, convulsions, coma, and respiratory arrest may occur. Therefore, a diagnosis of lead toxicity in a child should be considered when a child presents with a change in mental status, gait disorder, or a history of seizures. Chronic low-level lead exposure in children may result in behavioral disturbances, learning disabilities, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), or cognitive decline.

Huntingtons Disease

Clinical Features and Associated Disorders. Lieberman and associates found that 90 percent of patients were demented by a mean age of 48.3 years, and that dementia preceded the onset of chorea in 24 percent.y There are discrepant studies with regard to the existence of preclinical cognitive abnormalities, although preclinical metabolic abnormalities are detectable with PET. y Whether or not it is the critical determinant of cognitive decline, cognitive decline correlates pathologically and radiologically with degree of caudate atrophy y and hypometabolism.y Three areas of particular interest in the dementia of HD are frontal lobe-related or frontostriatal-related neuropsychiatric deficits, declarative memory impairment, and motor learning difficulties. Visuospatial disturbances have been demonstrated in some studies. With regard to frontostriatal neuropsychiatric deficits, patients may present initially with either primarily psychiatric or cognitive disturbances, although both may...